Autism is a neurobehavioral, developmental disability that involves significant impairment of individuals’ verbal and nonverbal language and social interaction. Other characteristics of autism include markedly short attention span, repetitive activities and rigid behaviors, and inability to treat others as people, resistance to tamper on their daily routines, among others . It covers a variety of communicative skills impairment depending on the levels of symptoms. Generally, it is evident in children prior to age three and hampers their educational performance. The disorder ranges from a handicap that produces a normal life to a devastating disability that calls for institutional attention .
Considering that autism is attached to children’s atypical attachment with themselves, it is inapplicable to them whose educational performance is adversely affected mainly by emotional disturbances such as unexplainable inability to learn due to sensory, intellectual, and health factors. Additionally, over long duration of time, characteristic problems in the educational performance of children with autism caused by inappropriate feelings and behaviors under normal circumstances are not covered by the said spectrum disorder. There are other conditions related to emotional disturbances that are simply inapplicable to autism, including general pervasiveness for people with depressive or anxiety disorder, physical symptoms due to personal and familial problems and social maladjustments.
Further, autism’s peak prevalence occurs at the age of nine, which serves as the baseline for prevalence studies. Although some prior studies conduct research for ages from five to eight, they significantly vary. According to Autism Speak Inc. (2014), autism affects more than two million U.S. individuals and over ten millions across the world. Each year, for the past decades, there is an increasing number of people with the disorder. Although there is no direct established explanation for the increase in prevalence of autism, some ascribe it to the diagnosed children who were previously unrecognized as having the disorder, improved diagnostic criteria and unfavourable environmental influences.
Various interventions are used to help these students learn effectively. Video modeling is one of them . This strategy makes use of videos by providing modeling of the targeted skills . The two videos, which comprise of participant or video self-modeling (VSM), as well as, video from other people are identified as effective in teaching skills, especially new ones, to students with autism . It is able to improve the conversational skills, daily skills of living, play skills, increase social interactions, and reduce behavioral problems. In several occasions, the new skills learned through this process are maintained for a long period of time .
Time delay is one effective intervention in preventing the so-called prompt dependence because these prompts are faded systematically such that the students with ASD focus on the situations that are naturally occurring instead of prompts that use target skills (McCormick, 2006; Schreibman & Ingersoll, 2005). For instance, a student with ASD cannot put on his coat on a daily basis until somebody else like the teacher tells him to. Time delay is important aspect for students with ASD as it helps them to learn aspects related to various skills such as academics, communication language, as well as, play. With this, the teachers could be able to implement trials in learning in which a controlling prompt and cue could be used in teaching the target skills. As the student becomes successful in implementing the new skills he or she has acquired, the teacher adds time interval on controlling prompt and initial cue by making use of two procedures namely: progressive time delay and constant time delay .
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is another intervention learners with autism make use of picture cards to communicate. These pictures are obtained from newspapers, magazines, and some are even purchased or printed from different sources such as CDs. The pictures give the learners with autism the ability to speak out their needs, ideas, and desires without having to make use of the spoken language. Most of the students with autism spectrum usually learn visually, making it necessary for them to be taught using the images . For autism students, PECS is synonymous with picture cards. If the teacher decides to use the Picture Exchange Communication system rather than just using the picture cards in communication, one must be trained in Pyramid Products. The program used to train students prepares the individuals to work with students in six phases. In the first phase, the teacher should work with the student and care providers to identify things that could be very motivating to the learner. Such things include food, toys or balls.
Finally, a graphic organizer is a visual support meant to offer students with visual representation of concepts and facts in an organized framework. This effectively arranges the important terms to show their connection with one another offering implicit and abstract information in a visual and concrete manner. The reason why they are effective is that they can be utilised before, during and even after the learner has read a certain selection, either as a concept measure of attainment or answer organizer. Graphic organizers, on the other hand, give way for processing times to the students because they are able to reflect on material written at their own pace (Marks, et al., 2003).
These interventions have been shown to bring effectively good results to students who have autism spectrum disorder. The approaches comprise of wide utility and are very useful to students with different ranges of abilities and ages as they lead to independent functioning. The methods could be applied with the aim of addressing various objectives of learners such as self-help, behavioral, social and communication objectives. The paper aims to discuss video modeling on students with autism. Two case examples will be discussed on how the video modeling is used on students with autism disorder.
Video modeling (VM) has been receiving considerable attention from educators and researchers as a means to help those with autism learn appropriate social skills. This research will explore current literature on the VM technique in order to understand what it is, how it is used, as well as, some advantages and disadvantages of the technique. It will examine two case studies that used VM for children with autism It will examine gaps in current literature on VM.
What is Video Modeling (VM)?Video Modeling is a strategy which makes use of videos in providing a modeling in the targeted skills . Also it is one of the most effective ways that use to teaching a variety of skills to individuals with autism (Delano, 2007).The two videos which comprise of participant or video self-modeling (VSM), as well as, video from other people identified as effective in the process of teaching skills, especially new ones, to students with ASD . The VM together with other types of models are easier to use and produce as they require little editing as compared to VSM. The placing of video camera at a certain angle to illustrate target skill or point of view modeling, where a model places camera on shoulder to demonstrate a skill from the level of the eye are also effective methods.
Video modeling (VM) is a method that has offered preliminary support for improving skills in students suffering from ASD. Among other things, it is able to improve conversational skills, enhance daily skills of living, play skills, increase social interactions, and reduce behavior problems (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2003). In several occasions, the new skills learned through this process are maintained for a long period of time . This is true especially when making use of multiple videos that show the same skills throughout several activities, people and settings. The method has been applied with children who are young and have ASD, pre-schoolers, as well as, elementary students . The method can be used in various settings and on various populations.
The flexibility of VM is an advantage in that, in addition to addressing various skills for a set of age ranges, it could be implemented singly or together with various instructional strategies. For instance, Baharav and Darling (2008) made use of VM together with an auditory trainer and Keen, Brannigan, and Cuskelly used it with strategies of positive reinforcement. Even if the VM could be used alone, it is best when combined with other strategies. It can also be used to improve a number of skills. Some of the skills that could be improved through the method of VM include: social initiation, for instance, when a student asks a colleague in school to have lunch together. Conversations, such as “May I sit close to you?” and “Have a look at this,” are encouraged. Giving greetings and responding to them is another skill that is initiated.
Children and adults often have difficulty understanding the non-verbal communication of other people. This significantly limits the possible scope of their social interactions. Non-verbal communication that is appropriate is also taught using video modeling. This includes showing interest in what other students or people are saying. This is done by nodding, smiling or having eye contact (Ganz, Earles-Vollrath, & Cook, 2011; Reagon, Higbee, & Endicott, 2006). The students are also taught to identify non-verbal cues of other people.
Conversational skills are taught in videos where the learners are shown how to maintain the conversation, remain on topic, and make comments regarding previous activities. The students are also shown how to make jokes and respond to other people’s comments. This makes them be able to enjoy staying with other people as they are in a position to share attention . The students are shown how they can narrate stories to one another without repeating one thing several times. They are taught the art of saying something once or twice. They get to learn how to use appropriate language and use of manners. For instance, using phrases like, "thank you," "excuse me," and "please," to show courtesy.
The students are also taught how to play various games through video modeling. This is done by first showing them how to initiate a game, use the best statements that are appropriate for specific games, behave in sports, and provide comments that are best in line with specific games. Teaching them to play games improves their ability to interact in a socially acceptable manner .
Moreover, the students can be taught the aspects of community outings through the video modeling. They are shown the best restaurant behaviors to learn how to purchase items, in addition to on how to make use of the public transport among others. They can also be taken through the processes involved when one is ordering food in a fast food restaurant and frequently visits the dentist or medical doctors.
Further, students may be taught the appropriate behavior when at special events such as at birthday parties, family events, weddings, funerals and holidays. They are also taught how to respond to demands or requests from adults, and excuse themselves for hygiene purposes without disturbing other people. Other aspects that can be taught include haircuts, table manners, travel by car or airplane, and queuing while waiting.
The students, on the other hand, can be taught the art of asking questions to get certain information and how to answer questions such as "What is the name of your school?" "What is your name?" and "Which sport is your favourite?” The art of making requests or asking permission is also taught using VM. For instance, when a student wants to obtain a preferred item (for example, food) or to perform a certain activity, he or she should be taught how to. The learner should also be taught how to borrow something, request a turn to answer a question, offer or request to do a certain activity, among others. All these could be done by first lifting their hand so that the teacher can see them. The students, thus, need to be told why lifting their hand is important in a classroom session. The students can also be taught how to ask for assistance and request for space (such as personal space).
One of the key disadvantages of VM is that it takes considerable time and effort to prepare. Making the videos takes time and effort. Another disadvantage is that not all children with ASD learn by imitation. The video learning method is only useful for students that demonstrate the ability to learn behaviors through imitation.
Video modeling can be used to help the student learn on how to respond to others in their environment and to initiate a response from it. Such skills will open up many opportunities to students in their daily interactions with other people. The flexibility of VM is its key advantage. A key disadvantage is that not all students with ASD learn by imitation.
One of the key gaps in the literatures is a lack of studies that specifically explore the use of VM in various settings and for various skills. Research into these topic areas would help to fine-tune the use of VM to achieve the greatest success possible. Now, this research will explore the steps to implementing VM.
Implementation of Video Modeling. There are three major steps involved in the VM implementation for students with autism.
- Intervention Preparation. This starts with the determination of the lesson objectives that need to be achieved by the children with ASD.
- Lesson Objectives: The use of VM for children with autism starts with the identification of target skills. This involves steps such as listing, assessing, prioritizing skills, obtaining baseline data, and defining skills. Before the implementation of video modeling, it is important to document baseline data of the student’s deficits and social strengths . This comprises of ecological assessments, which shows the abilities of the student as compared with the peers in a targeted activity or natural environment. It includes behavior-sampling, interviews, and questionnaires filled out by school staff, peers, parents, and students’ self-report. After that, it is important to make a report comprising of skills making use of the results obtained from the assessment and then prioritizing the skills in an order. For instance, they may be ordered with the most important first. The target skills could be defined objectively and should be based on the data observed.
- Materials: After the identification of the target skills, the next step is the production of videos for use in the intervention. Before developing the video, it is important to determine the best media for use, whether digital or videotape. Obtain all the requirements that are important such as the video player, video camera, monitor, among others. Have a plan to create about five videos in every skill and offer various settings and models for adults, students and peers . The scripts plus tasks are to be analysed for the purpose of skill generalization .
- Time Allotted for Implementation: Prior to the use of the videos for intervention, each of the videos should be edited and run for about five (5) minutes, though, they are effective from 30 seconds to 13 minutes. Likewise, before the actual implementation phase, it is important to seek for permission from the parent for every video participant, as well as, minor models. These models are supposed to be taught every step in the analysis of the task or script and while they practice, and later, as they perform while being videotaped. The models should be of the same gender or age to the student being targeted.
- Implementation of the VM Intervention. This stage involves preparing to teach video viewing at the most appropriate time during the day. The specific videos that focus on a certain skill are supposed to be viewed on daily basis at specific time of the day. On top of that, the video is supposed to be viewed before the time a student is supposed to show the skill. For instance, if the script and video show the way to join a game, the video should be shown before the class begins.
When aiming for best results, the video is supposed to be viewed consistently. This increases the instruction’s relevance. The setting is supposed to be a place where the child is meant to show the skill. Those resources that used in the video should be similar to the ones the student will use during the demonstration of the targeted behavior.
The video could be watched independently or as a group depending on the student’s needs, as well as, instructional setting. It is important to plan for a situation where the students observe each of the five videos that are developed for a skill being targeted before engaging in an activity or skill that is selected. After viewing the video, immediately give the student a chance to perfect the skill through practice in a natural setting. If it is impossible, have a plan for practicing the skill or role-playing in a classroom setting. Alternatively, it is possible to arrange situations in therapy settings or school, whereby a student can make use of the target skill. After this, collect the data on the performance of the student. To be in a position to identify the video modeling’s effectiveness, a similar type of data can be collected for the intervention phase and the baseline.
The students with ASD usually have problems when generalizing the skills that are newly acquired. Generalization programming is, thus, necessary in any instructions through social skills. Using VM to teach skills should involve teaching various response and stimulus exemplars. This means that when a student is being taught the way to join a game, it is important to include different settings such as gym, playground and neighbourhood. It should include scripts such as “May I play?” and peers in all the videos.
Other strategies in generalization involve teaching a student ways of self-recording, self-monitoring, using target skills, among others. Social skill teaching should also be included, if possible, in a natural environment. The videos should be viewed several times, as this helps in making arrangements, to make students access the video for viewing independently as needed.
- Troubleshooting. One should not be inclined and have a feeling of abandoning VM quickly, especially when the initial data shows limited progress on the behavior being targeted. Even if it may appear that the strategy is a no fail intervention or easy, as compared to other techniques in teaching, issues could come up when implementing the strategy. Inadequate progress could be a result of lack of reinforcement, inadequate prerequisites, or poor content in the video.
In addressing the inadequate reinforcement challenge, it is important for one to design reinforcing stimuli that could be delivered consistently and immediately following a demonstration of the behavior being targeted. Poor or low video content may affect intervention impact. If the content of the video becomes an issue, it is important to reshoot or rewrite the video. If one is filming the video, one should consider restricting the extraneous stimuli such as visual distractions and noise. It is important also to make sure the behavior being targeted is modelled clearly and slowly. If in any case there is an observation that the student does not possess the prerequisite skills of observational learning and imitation, consider using instructions that are adult directed in the process.
Success of Video Modeling. Children suffering from ASD have a propensity to be educated via visual means, as compared to the teaching techniques that are auditory based. Strategies that are visually-based, like video modeling, hold promise in the knowledge passed to these children. Video modeling is a method that is based on the theory of social learning that explains that students may learn through observation and imitation of actions done by others. Video modeling is appealing in the way it addresses the deficiencies in social skills in children suffering from ASD in an unobtrusive fashion and at a low cost.
Video modeling provides flexibility to educators when they use other models in various settings that target students’ learning. For the method to be successful, it should always be in direct instruction combined with natural skills, which in most cases underlie the success of the method in context. Case examples were studied to understand the concept of video modeling.
On the first step of identifying target skills, the IEP team tried several strategies with the aim of increasing the ability of the student to generalize the knowledge and academic skills he showed in school and at home setting. The team used of various fonts, employed verbal antecedents, incorporated opportunities, and made additional materials that Scott utilized that made him learned many aspects through the various settings in the school and community at large. Even after using all these strategies, the student had problems in completing homework, which intended him to use skills learnt in school on that day. To obtain a baseline, the mastered sight words in school were sent at home to his mother. The mother presented the words and obtained data on Scott’s performance.
The next step involved was the production of videos. Now that Scott could finish the tasks in school, VSM was used where little editing was done. The next author videotaped the student in school accurately reading flash disks and by editing or deleting the wrong responses in the video. The team sent it to home so that Scott could watch it before starting homework every day.
The final step involved was the implementation of VM intervention. The mother of Scott collected information on the performance of his son using the flash cards for a whole week. She then allowed him to watch on a daily basis for fun. Scott went on to review the words in school during the maintenance programming. The next week, the mother showed him video on a daily basis and discussed what they observed. She always used various words mentioned well in the video. She then presented the card and tracked the performance of her son. She kept on giving her son social reinforcement with every correct answer he gave. She then reported the social validity for the procedure of VSM. She reported that the procedure was a reinforcing experience and positive. Scott enjoyed himself as he achieved success.
Even though Scott was improving in reading flash card words, it was not clear whether he could continue the same in other contexts. He sometimes became frustrated when he was not able to read the sight words. The mother thought of making use of various videos with several examples and tasks, which could motivate the student.
Despite all these attempts, Sara remained passive and very lonely among her peers. As a result, she came up with other unique strategies that would attract the attention of the peers. For instance, she learnt that passing gas in class would make other students laugh at her and that it would also leave a lasting memory for some time period to the whole class. After noting that all these efforts did not give her friends and the company she needed, she went to the study hall. She expressed her frustrations to her teacher over her inability to find friends among peers that she could hang out. Together with the district autism consultant, they developed strategies that would help solve her problem in three main steps.
The first step involved the selection of several social skills followed by conduct of an ecological assessment. The team argued that initiating social interaction skills would be the best way to improve her social behavior among her peers. Hence, they studied her in the cafeteria during lunch hours. In addition, the team argued that Sara lacked positive interaction skills and that if this could be developed then she would improve her quality of life by developing new friends.
Secondly, the team used videos to implement the first strategy that was conducted in the study hall. This was done to enable observation of the students who were participating in the interview in the student hall. The questions given to the students were open-ended and this allowed open conversation among the students. Upon completion, the team came up with detailed videos of the whole interview process in the hallway while conversing with peers. This step was considered important since it showed to the team what the peers had to say about Sara that could improve her social skills.
Thirdly, the team then implemented the first strategy by use of recorded events. They identified different locations and times when Sara would watch the videos. And after watching the videos, she was expected to demonstrate the events and respond just as done by her peers. In addition, after watching the video, she was expected to come up with proper and convenient ways by which she would be able to initiate conversation among her friends. The study hall teacher and the district consultant challenged her to develop a list of all the initiation phrases that were used in the video and role-play them with anyone including the teacher and peers. Apart from that, she was to suggest other measures and phrases that would also help her initiate a conversation with friends.
In summary, after the team had collected and observed all the available data, they began to notice that during lunch hours Sara would be seen joining her friends for lunch. The same also applied to her receiving friends request on the social sites such as Facebook. On this realization of success, the team developed other videos that enabled her to generalize concepts that were needed by Sara to add to those already adopted. This proved a success as more changes were realized when compared to the first periods of time in class and the school environment at large.
The process provides the educators with flexibility to implement even as they make use of other models, target adults, students and various settings. For the method to have high success level, it should always have natural and direct opportunities. Video modeling facilitated support and direct instruction in the environment that is naturally occurring is apt to cause great success. Video modeling offers the teachers a heuristic tool, which assists the learners in improving communication, work related behavior, and skills, which frequently undermine the success on various contexts.
The paper has succeeded in looking at the various ways of educating students with autism. Learners with this disorder have big problems in communication and they have difficulties trying to understand the way other people feel and think. It is therefore difficult for them to communicate or express themselves through words, touch, gestures, or facial expressions. Video modeling is one of the methods used to teach these skills. It provides educators with flexibility to implement even as they make use of other models, target adults, students and various settings.
Video modeling directs instruction in the environment that occurs naturally and is apt to have great success. Two case examples of Scott and Sara have been used to demonstrate how the VM works. It offers the teachers heuristic tool which aids the students in improving communication, work related behavior, and skills which frequently undermine their success in various contexts. The paper has shown the steps involved in the preparation and the implementation of VM intervention.
The use of case analysis, as well as, existing literature supports the use of VM to improve the social and communication skills of students with ASD. The main advantage of VM is its flexibility. It can be modified to model almost any behavior that is needed and it can be adjusted to the needs of the learner. One of its key disadvantages is the amount of effort that it requires to plan the strategy and prepare the videos. Not all learners with ASD will achieve success in learning using modeling and imitation. For those that are successful in this skill, VM can solve many of their problems.
Autism Speak Inc. . (2014). What Is Autism? Retrieved from Autism Speaks: It's Time to Listen: http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism
Baharav, E., & Darling, R. (2008). Case report: Using an auditory trainer with caregiver video modeling to enhance communication and socialization behaviors in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 771–775. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0429-6
Bellini, S., Peters, J. K., Benner, L., & Hopf, A. (2007). A meta-analysis of school-based social skills interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Remedial and Special Education, 28(3), 153-162.
Buggey, T. (2005). Video self-modeling applications with students with autism spectrum disorder in a small private school setting. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 52–63.
Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 30(6), 537-552.
D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 5–11.
Delano, M. E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 33-42.
Frost, L., & Bondy, A. (2006). A Common Language: Using B.F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior for Assessment and Treatment of Communication Disabilities in SLP-ABA. The Journal of Speech - Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 1(2), 103-110.
Ganz, J. B., Earles-Vollrath, T. L., & Cook, K. E. (2011). Video modeling: A Visually based intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), 8-19.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (n.d.). Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education: Promoting Education Excellence for All Americans: http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8,c,1,
Keen, D., Brannigan, K. L., & Cuskelly, M. (2007). Toilet training for children with autism: The effects of video modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 19, 291–303. doi:10.1007/s10882-007-9044-x
Maione, L., & Mirenda, P. (2006). Effects of video modeling and video feedback on peer-directed social language skills of a child with autism. Journal of PositiveBehavior Interventions, 8(2), 106–118.
Marks, S., Shaw-Hegwer, J., Schrader, C., Longaker, T., Peters, I., Powers, F., & Levine, M. (2003). Instructional management tips for teachers of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teaching exceptional children, 35(4), 50-55.
McCormick, L. (2006). Planning evaluation/monitoring. In M. J. Noonan, M. J. Noonan, & L. McCormick (Eds.), Young children with disabilities in natural environments (pp. 99-118). Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co.
Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2003). Promoting social initiation in children with autism using video modeling. Behavioral Interventions, 18, 87–108. doi:10.1002/bin.129
Reagon, K. A., Higbee, T. S., & Endicott, K. (2006). Teaching pretend play skills to a student with autism using video modeling with a sibling as model and play partner. Education & Treatment of Children, 29(3), 517-528.
Schreibman, L., & Ingersoll, B. (2005). Behavioral interventions to promote learning in individuals with autism. In F. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 882–896). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Sherer, M., Pierce, K. L., Paredes, S., Kisacky, K. L., Ingersoll, B., & Schreibman, L. (2001). Enhancing conversational skills in children with autism via video technology. Behavior Modification, 25(1), 140–158.
- How special education study has alerted you on professional identity
At the beginning, I did not have knowledge on the disabilities of students or the characteristics of these disabilities because my bachelor degree was in chemistry. The study of special education has made me more aware and mindful of my professional identity. It has helped me understand the way I should make use of methods dealing and contacting with the learners who have disabilities whenever they possess negative behavior. It has also taught me the way to have a better environment for meeting with the learners’ needs, and it gave me encouragement to help the learners with disabilities together with their families, with sincerity and confidence.
- The need for teaching for social justice
In education, social justice aims at teaching students without factoring in their gender, group affiliation, language, ethnicity, disability, or race. The main aim of social justice is to fight oppression through providing all groups with an opportunity to accept the available resources in the same way. On the other hand, social justice is provided for individual students through No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and inclusions. The students who have special needs should be held to standards just as those who don’t have disabilities. When social justice is taught, it will help educators to be informed about learners with disabilities. This will assist the teachers aim with regard to the needs of students and the way to teach them equally and fairly to meet educational goals.
- How to collaborate with other professionals to help meet needs of the learners with disabilities
The learners with disabilities require assistance to receive services in special education from the professionals. I will, therefore, work together with other professionals to meet the students’ needs through coming up with a plan to implement, and make use of the interventions available to achieve this goal. I will also engage the students on various social activities so as to have them interact socially. In addition, I will apply various techniques to deal with them whenever they exhibit a negative behavior. On the other hand, their parents will be involved so as to compare the improvement of students both at home and in school. Finally, I will evaluate the learners and their educational needs and provide support to them and members of their family.
These students face various issues in accessing education. One of the challenges is racial discrimination, which impacts the abilities of learning for the students. When the learners don’t have a feeling of safety, they are unable to produce efficiently using their creative capacity. Most of these students tend to drop out of school, as there is heavy pressure from discrimination and insult. This destroys their desire to perform well academically and self-esteem reduces. The teachers should not assess students by looking at their race. This would be denying them their right to be students. They should therefore try to know their background, needs, and culture to help improve their academic achievement.