The attribution theory examines how a person uses the information to come into a conclusion regarding a certain event. It suggests that people use the information at their disposal in a social scene to deduce an explanation of a social occurrence. It is a theory developed by psychologists in a bid to understand how individuals in society perceive certain occurrences (Martinko10). The individuals use the accessible information to understand and explain an occurrence. When people from different social setting interact in the same social set up, there are forces that pull them together. Their ideas and explanations to different happenings and events are shaped in a similar way.
People come together and tend to interact due to the process of labor division. In essence, division of labor shapes people’s relationships (Ferrante 106). The process of division of labor includes a situation where a large task is divided into smaller parts and distributed among many people. Each part is assigned to an expert; some parts need manual skills while others need academic skills. The labor process prompts human social interactions (Martinko 13). In the case presented, DRC Congo was a center where raw materials such as rubber were traded. Congo has witnessed destruction of labor division since 1884 (Ferrante 111). The process of cutting down trees and extracting rubber was divided into small parts. The process of labor division led to social interactions between people from different social backgrounds. The trade ties established at this time led to deeper social ties as traders and laborers interacted. At this point, the people shared similar ideas regarding different events, which conforms to the idea of the attribution theory.
The Variables that Cause HIV Infection
Urbanization and globalization are situational causes of HIV infection. The migration to urban areas caused an increase in social interactions (Martinko 12). People who moved to towns had less space, and this was the best environment for rapid disease spread. There was an increase in social interactions, which had been caused by the process of urbanization (Ferrante 112). People who were from different parts were able to come together and do business.
Lack of medical precaution is a situational cause of HIV infection. At that time, doctors and nurses used unsterilized needles and syringes to perform medical operations on the patients. This assumed a vital role in the spread of the virus as unsterilized tools spread the infection. Furthermore, the condition spread rapidly because at the early stages, medical practitioners were not aware of how to handle the situation. Studies had not been conducted to show how the virus was spreading.
Colonization is a dispositional cause of HIV infection. Some Africans collaborated with the Europeans while others resisted. The prevalence of HIV among Africans who collaborated with the colonialists is higher than in those who resisted the Europeans. Collaboration led to social interactions where some people often practiced sex; thus, the spread of the virus.
Status is a situational cause of HIV infection. Status including aspects such as race, age, and biological sex among others has the potential of defining the disease’s prevalence (Ferrante 114). For example, the risk of the spread of the virus varies with the gender. Women and girls have higher chances of contracting virus than men. The female’s body provides a favorable ground in which the virus can survive for longer. Furthermore, females are exposed to sex at a younger age due to social factors like poverty and early marriages; thus, increasing their risks of getting infections. During raids and war, women were often raped which explains their high risk in contracting the virus.
Scapegoating regards to a situation when something is blamed for an event that occurred, but is blamed may not be the actual cause of that event. Scapegoating occurs when a person wants to cover up something or does not know the real cause of an event. For example, people initially argued that HIV/AIDS only affects Africans. This increased the rate of HIV infections among Americans and Europeans as they engaged in unprotected sex with each other.
Consequences of Scapegoating
Scapegoating for HIV/AIDS leads to the creation of myths in a society that prompts the spread of the virus. Myths are the main cause of HIV/AIDS high spread rate. Myths and scapegoating make people fail to understand the real causes of the virus. Myths and misconceptions are common in Africa due to scapegoating. A common myth regarding HIV in Africa suggests that once you have unprotected sex with a virgin, the HIV virus goes away. These myths lead to experimentation, which creates a favorable situation for the spread of the virus. It is worthwhile noting that a society that has sophisticated patterns of division of labor presents high rate of organic solidarity (Ferrante 110).
Scapegoating hinders further research and delays the process of establishing a medical solution. The process of finding a medical cure for HIV/AIDs has been slowed down by biased perceptions towards the disease. Laboratory technicians and medical researchers are not able to come into a conclusion on the best way to cure the disease when they do not understand it deeply. Scapegoating should be avoided to check the spread of this virus and facilitate the process of establishing a cure for this disease.
Human interactions increase the spread of HIV/AIDs. Social interactions make individuals think in the same way about an event or situation. This is the case of HIV/AIDS; human interactions have lead to the spread of similar ideas about HIV/AIDS. The spread of biased ideas and attitudes regarding this disease has prompted the spread of the virus while slowing down the process for developing a cure.
Martinko, Mark J. Attribution theory in the organizational sciences: theoretical and empirical contributions. Greenwich, CT: IAP-Information Age Pub., 2004. Print.
Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.