Correlations are repeatedly found in space arrangement studies, and they are largely found between graph-based, configuration measures of street networks. In essence, they are clearly characterized as lines, and observable movement patterns. Therefore, this indicates that both the topological and symmetrical complexity is used to study movement in urban grids analytically. Accordingly, since urban modelling has always been assumed that spatial factors play a role in urban navigation, it has always resulted in numerous difficulties. In addition, the existence of various cognitive and scientific evidence of geometric and topological factors is involved in urban navigation, and the metric distance is implausible to the most appropriate benchmark for navigational choices. The difficulty is not fixed strongly for the reason that no method has existed to dispute cognitive information from aggregate urban flows.
A major design method that is significant for the study of movement in heritage cities is the Space Syntax. Space syntax has been defined as a science-based and human-focused method that explores connections between the spatial distribution and a variety of social, economic and environmental aspects. As such, the method involves the inclusion of movement, cognizance and interaction. It further places emphasis on a city’s density, land use and land value As well as, urban growth factors and societal differentiation, crime distribution and safety. Therefore, space syntax helps to analyze the arrangements of connection, differentiation and centrality that brand urban systems and associations of parts to whole that they represent (Peponis, Ross, & Rashids, 1997).
The main advantages of this approach on a city’s movement pattern is that it advocates that movement patterns are strongly shaped by spatial planning in that city it concludes that patterns of security are affected by spatial plan, through this approach one is able to conclude that spatial segregation and social disadvantage are related to cities (Hillier & Iida, 2005).
Moreover, another approach of studying urban movement is through the principle of 'natural movement'. In this sense, natural movement refers to the percentage of movement on the respective line. Such lines are determined through the organization of the urban network itself rather than through the existence of exact attractors or magnets. In a large and well-developed urban grid people move in lines, but start and finish everywhere. Therefore, the movement has a tendency to be largely from everywhere and heads everywhere else. Thus, the structure of the grid itself accounts for much of the dissimilarity in movement densities (Hillier, 1996). Scholars and urban designers who advocate for the utilization of this method base their argument on the fact that movement is not interested since all networks are interconnected- in the urban grid/ routes, people move in lines, but start and finish everywhere. Accordingly the designing of these grids takes account of the population of the movement densities.
According to Turner and Penn, the cognitive psychology as discussed through Gibson's ecological theory of perception have been studied and considered in regard to the study of movement in urban settings. For instance, the study shows that the Gibson's theory was framed to overturn theories burdened with both subjective and objective facts, and to replace those theories with a model that such agents and the environment are linked by a set of affordances. This would help since the agent perceives the contents of the environment openly and apply the affordances within it to escort its action without mention to superior depictive models (Turner & Penn, 2002).
Therefore, this method strongly, advocates for the need to respect the cognitive psychology of the population and allow them to have freedom of movements around the city. Another advantage of this method is its emphasis on respect for cognitive distance of individuals movement is made easy, and people are able to arrive at their destinations with ease. Nonetheless, when individuals are allowed to use the cognitive distance approach, movement networks may become unsystematic, and it may result to unplanned routes that may damage the retention of heritage sites.
Another effective means of studying urban movement is through the network effects. Network effects relies on street networks and how they shape or affect the aggregate urban movement. For instance, in case urban planners try to utilize their analysis based on vehicular movement, they assume that movement within that sub-area is theoretically distributed according to the interaction arrangement of the greater system or allowing the integration arrangement of that sub-area to be treated independently (Montgomery, 1998). In this light, two key analytical questions emerge. One, the challenge concerning the degree to which movement within a specified urban zone is concerned towards its dependency on either the local or the global urban system. The second challenge concerns the degree to which movement arrangements in the sub-areas, treated as part of the larger system, show distinctive differences. These two challenges are the main weaknesses of this approach. Conversely, this method is advantageous on the platform that it considers the connectivity of one place to the other in respect to land use, and population of that area. However, the method is weakened by the fact that heritage sites may be in high movement zones, thus requiring wider grids and this may result to either demolitions or a minimization of the space surrounding such sites.
Similarly, in a report by Whyte (1968), concludes that far more intriguing than the stationary features of the architectural landscape are the energetic human connections that occupy them, and the repeatedly surprising methods in which they unfold. Whyte, further states that what was more appealing about his research on New York city was the fact about the behavior of ordinary people moving on city streets (Whyte, 1968). Their movement was largely characterized by their rituals in street encounters, for instance, the consistency of chance meetings, their inclination towards mutual gestures in street conferences, and measures of the three-phase goodbye. Lastly, the report indicated that urban parks were essential instruments for stimulating the city dwellers interaction with the city he noted that this might be one reason they remain to be very enduringly beloved (Popova, 2013).
Accordingly, this approach of studying movement in heritage cities has its disadvantages. The main disadvantage is its concern about the realities and practicality of protecting and retaining open spaces not only in the city center but on the urban frontier, as well. This may limit development and may result in the building of high-rise buildings. This may fail its objectives since the natural serene of such locations will not be attained. Secondly, with land being owned by individuals, it would not be in order to limit their rights to enjoy the benefits of such parcels. Hence this approach is prone to resistance from landowners. On the contrary, the method has the advantage of retaining the heritage of a city by advocating the retention and maintenance of the natural beauty and historical site in these cities (Whyte, 1968).
In conclusion, the space syntax offers a foundation for more specific comparative studies in studying movement in the cities. On the same measures, the results and deductions showed some more particular conclusions. Therefore, this means that urban areas that develop owing to the ground rules of creating and connecting streets inclines to be segregated according to the way through which they fit to larger wholes, not permitting to some rushed physical boundary. At the same, this paper has been able to prove that the deduced results indicates a very strong demonstration that the architecture of the street network, both based on geometrical and topological sense, can be projected, through their effects rely on movement flows based on the Whyte method. Equally, this is influenced by the evolution of land use patterns and spatial patterns of the whole city life patterns and through the network effect and the natural movement methods. Accordingly, this powerful characteristic of the urban system can certainly not continue to be suspended in urban modelling, and the architectural possessions of the large scale street network should not be discounted in total. Rather, designing of urban movements ought to match its heritage, social, economic and political affiliation so that public goods can serve it adequately. Therefore, it is important to note that there is no single method that satisfies the benchmark for planning on urban movement. Thus, a combination of any of the mentioned methods, forms the most suitable approach when studying on movement in heritage cities.
Peponis , J., Ross , C., & Rashids, M. (1997). The Structure of Urban Space, Movement and Co-presence: The Case of Atlanta. Geofmm, Vol. 28, No. 344, 341-358.
Popova, M. (2013, August 22). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Retrieved from Brain Pickings: http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/08/22/the-social-life-of-small-urban-spaces-whyte/
Goffman, E. (1956). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. The American Journal of Sociology.
Hillier, B. (1994). Space is the machine A configurational theory of Architecture. Space Syntax.
Hillier, B. (1996). Cities as movement economies. URBAN DESIGN International , 41-60.
Hillier, B., & Iida, S. (2005). Network and Psychological Effects in Urban Movement. 475-490.
Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., & Xu, J. (1993). Natural Movement: or Configuration and Attraction in Urban Pedestrian movement. Environment and Urban: Planning and Design, 29-66.
Montgomery, J. (1998). Making a city: Urbanity,vitality and urban design. Journal of Urban Design, 93-116.
Turner, A., & Penn, A. (2002). Encoding natural movement as an agent-based system: an investigation into human pedestrian behaviour in the built environment. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design volume 29, 473- 490.
Turner, A., & Penn, A. (2002). Encoding natural movement as an agent-based system:an investigation into human pedestrian behaviour in the built environment. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 473 - 490.
Whyte, W. (1968). The Last Landscape. New York, 1968: Doubleday and Company, Garden City.
Zeisel, J. (n/a). Observing Physical Traces. Insert by Design Tools for Environment- Behavior Research, 90-134.