According to Chapter 12 (2) there are universal values that are used in most ways of life and at the same time are vary from culture to culture. The specific conditions that drive workers to put in all their energy and focus on the job depend on what they view as important. The Goal Setting Theory states that how individuals go about setting goals and achieving or responding to them.
1) The theory has been proven to work within one country and not in another because as explained, there are certain details that vary from one way of life to another. In the United States of America, the Goal Setting Theory works well where employees found that engaging in discussions and activities that set goals to be motivational. Similarly, in the United Kingdom workers responded well to the idea of goal setting programs only when presented by their Unions and not by their supervisors (Chapter 12 p. 20).
2) For a country like Norway, the idea of participating in activities that encourage goal setting is not received well. Instead, workers prefer to have their unions be the ones to initiate programs that bring about goal setting (Chapter 12 p. 20). Workers in the US are encouraged and driven by their goals and not afraid of speaking out. Workers in Norway trust the method and approach proposed by their unions to setting goals.
Reward systems vary from company to company. The decision to choose a certain kind of reward system also is influenced by the sort of culture. Japan has for many years partnered with the US for trade and other business ventures.
1) One of the reward systems worth exploring is to introduce a performance allied structure. Recognition is given for their efforts within the company by giving those who reach their targets better vacation options, more allowance on their housing aid.
In Japan, the primary interest of workers is group contribution and in the US it is more about self. In the same category, the incentive that works in the US is money and in Japan is respect and power. The performance allied structure will encourage the workers to achieve their targets and give them more incentive to do better. Though Japanese companies regard the reward system as disruptive of company culture and customary values, it will help balance out the structure of promoting those who are senior within the company (Chapter 12, p. 27).
The structure will provide equal opportunity to all employees, regardless of gender or duration of time one has worked at the company. Younger employees will work more efficiently toward the collected goal of the company. A reward option that would not be advisable is a raise in salary because already, workers receive a generous half year bonus that removes jealousy. Creating jealousy among the employees would work negatively for the company.
According to Chapter 12 (3) motivation, is an internal process where unsatisfied wants or needs direct people to activities that aimed at incentives or goals. The key to resolving an issue that arises from overseas companies is to look closely at what the employees in that country think are important and what valued within the workplace. From this insight, design a reward system that suits them specifically.
The reason for changing the program is because, not all cultures would accept the performance structure as cultures and beliefs place importance on different things. In one society money may not be as important as the consideration for family, integrity, respect and group effort. The performance structure will also encourage more group work and for those groups that do well, awards for best team effort will receive certificates or trophies (Chapter 12, p. 27).
2) When setting up companies all over the world, careful thought must be put in. The employees that understand what the company requires of them is crucial to the overall performance of the business. Similarly, employees need to feel that they valued and also, personally, need to value their work and feel motivated and satisfied (Chapter 12, p. 28). When a worker does not find any importance in the work, they are doing, or even have an idea of what the company's mission and vision is, dissatisfaction arises.
A situation like what is happening in China brings into perspective how serious the mental state and attitude of unmotivated and neglected employees can be. With low pay and long hours, the men and women who work in these factories are exploited because labor is cheap. Most of them travel from their rural homes to the cities in order to earn an income to support their parents or feed the children they have left behind.
According to Chapter 12 (23), work centrality is where and individual places some importance of the work they do. The employees who work in the factories do not even know what the products used for apart from the fact that they cannot afford them. In truth, this shows total neglect and lack of interest in their work. All that the factory employees are worried about is the little wage or salary that they will receive at the end of their toil in order to send a little home.
Survival is what most of the factory workers consider. Some may not even get to see their children for most of the year and have to cope with deplorable living conditions. Needless to say, the conditions that they live within the cities are much preferred that what they would face if they returned home to a rural area. To a large extent, employee motivation is a luxury when you compare the circumstances. Most companies, employees are agitating for better medical allowances, housing allowances and vacation days. Looking at the working conditions of most of these factories, workers cannot afford to be choosy.
As mentioned earlier priorities, values and cultures vary from country to country. In one country, workers are concerned that they might not get their annual bonuses, on the other side workers have to know that they may not see their child for another year because they have to work. It is important for companies to care and pay attention to their workers because they are the moving force within the industries.
It is important for an individual to recognize the advantages and working conditions that are within the workplace. There is always room for improvement and changes. Taking for granted certain privileges will breed workers who are never thankful or encourage complaining. For the workers in China, they work thinking of how they will meet their basic needs like food, shelter and clothing. The Chinese government must intervene together with labor unions to help the workers by improving the working conditions and raise the wage/salary.
Chapter 12. .International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior: Penguin Publishers. 2011. Print