One of the most famous leaders in management named Professor George Elton was born on 1880 in Australia. He was graduated in psychology at Adelaide University. He had joined as a lecturer in Logic, Ethics, and Psychology in 1911 at the University of Queensland. Later on, he became a professor of Philosophy. In 1923, he had shifted to USA and had posted at Pennsylvania University. Mayo was involved in some experiments. Elton Mayo was considered the fathers of the management thinkers and human relations movement. He was famous for his work on the studies of Hawthorne. In 1928, he had involved in Hawthorne experiments. At that time, the most widely used management theory was the scientific management, which was designed by an industrial engineer named Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor had conducted many studies on motion and time to find out the best solution to do specific jobs. He was the founder of human relations in management (Bruce, 2006, 177–199). He had then drawn conclusion that standardization was the best way to achieve the highest work output from the team (Wood, 2004, 1–1032). After that, he had been promoted as an Associate Professor of Industrial Research to the Harvard University School. He was then awarded as a chairman. He was retired in the year 1947. After the findings, Mayo had drawn conclusions that the Hawthorne studies are crucial for the management and played a major part in industrial productivity. It is equally important as monetary incentives; however, it will develop the human social skills.
The experiment had taken place to know the impact on the productivity of the 29,000 workers. It was carried out in the year 1924 by dividing the workers into two groups. After selecting two separate groups, the impacts of lighting changes on productivity of the workers are measured. The experiment proves that any changes lead to increased productivity. Thus from the findings it can be said that changes in the condition of the work leads to improved productivity. In order to see the further improvement of the output, additional changes on working conditions were made. It can be seen from all cases that productivity goes up. In this way, Mayo was invited to investigate. He had conducted interviews with workers. .According to state that further research was taken. The third stage had taken place in the bank Wiring Room. They had used the same incentives to productivity just as the first stage. However, they had to use some criteria like restricted output, indifferent group, etc. Mayo had realized at the first stage that productivity were increasing but now after giving all conditions it was found that the productivity were restricted (Wood, 2004, 1–1032).
Quinn and Rohrbaugh design Quinn Competing Values Framework. The model has four quadrants. There are four major models of management theory in each quadrant. They are- human relations model, open system model, Rational Goal model and internal process model.
1. Human Relations Model- This model put emphasis on training and human resource. They have never seen the people as an isolated individual (Bruce, 2006, 177–199).
2. Open Systems Model- It put emphasis on readiness, adaptability, resource acquisition, external support, and growth. The system brings creativity and innovation. Here people are inspired.
3. Rational Goal Model- It put emphasis on rational action and is based on profit. According to this model, productivity and efficiency can be achieved through proper planning and goal setting.
4. Internal Process Model is a model that put more emphasis on documentation, information management and measurement (Hindle, 2008, 271–272). The process brings control and stability.
The horizontal line of the competing value framework as given in appendix represents Internal focus( left) and external focus(right).Internal focus is the forces that put more emphasis on the well-being and efficiency of employees whereas externally put more emphasis on the organization's well- being and fit with its environment (Hindle, 2008, 271–272). The ideas and thoughts of Elton Mayo fit the human relations model of Quinn competing value framework. Elton Mayo was involved with an experiment on working conditions (Bruce, 2011, 383–405). The models were developed when they were getting unexpected results from the experiments on working conditions. Even after changing the environments, positively or negatively it was found out that the output had increased. He had drawn conclusion that such output growth was the indication of the new social relations. These social relations occur for the establishment of the team. Therefore, the social process at work was emphasized fully, which includes the well-being of employees (Wood, 2004, 1–1032).
The thoughts of Elton Mayo in managing the human relations on the job were highly influential over decades. Elton Mayo had brought many improvements in the human relations at workplace. He had brought changes in the management perception at workers, and that had improved a lot. Previously workers were used to viewing as a worker who needs money and wage.
Now managers are dealing with the most complex needs of workers that are very much essential that includes a combination of attitudes, values and desires (Griffin, 2002, 356–375). Today's workplace has become very challenging and complex (Bruce, 2011, 383–405). Several factors increase personal stress and make the human relations more complex. Such factors are an increase in the divorce rate, the rise of dual- career family, competition, etc. Still we are following Elton and his ideas on establishing human relations. In addition to this approach, we need to focus on some main areas like- group dynamics, self-esteem, self-awareness, communication skills, motivation and self-esteem. Worker's motivation is highly recommended in the workplace. According to him, if the workers are not motivated to work then they will not be able to provide the maximum productivity required to deliver the optimum output. Another important idea that Mayo stated is the improvement of communication skills amongst the workers. Though still now many organizations are finding different ways to improve communication skills. Mayo's ideas are highly appreciated and used still today.
Summary of Findings
George Elton was the famous leaders in the area of management. He was the father human relations movement. He was involved in Hawthorne experiments. At that time, scientific management of Frederick Winslow Taylor was very prevalent but still Taylor could not ignore the way Elton Mayo had put importance on management style. According to Mayo, if the workers are given enough room in their workplace to move freely and work freely then the worker's job satisfaction will be increased. If the workplace is favorable then, workers can set their output. He also concluded that more cooperation is required for job satisfaction.
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Griffin MA, Landy FJ and Mayocchi L (2002) Australian influences on Elton Mayo: the construct of Revery in industrial society. History of psychology 5: 356–375.
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