Industrialization refers to the large-scale establishment of developed technical enterprises, manufacturing and other economic activities. The idea of industrialization refers to economic shifts from a principally agricultural foundation, to a combined or service/industrial foundation with a rise in output per capita and output. Even though the initial phases of industrialization need policy and systemic measures to guide resources into effective procedure, the creation of output growth via productivity growth is paramount. The Soviet Union economy focused on the procedure of industrialization and agriculture through divergent policy imperatives, institutional arrangement and shift in ideological strictures.
Changes in the society and institutional arrangement promoted modern industrialization. Stalin employed power centralization as a way of enhancing the drive of industrialization (Kort 210). Stalin used antagonism to gain power, and he aligned himself with conservatives in order to create a coalition that ousted Trotsky and his sympathizers (Lautzenheiser 461). The major soviet accomplishment was not an increased level of industrial growth, but it was as a result of considerable changes of the whole society. Consolidating the power grip and introduction of impunity rule enhanced industrialization. Stalin employed a brutal collectivization process that despite destroying the independence of peasants, introduced an industrialization drive. During the industrialization drive, the Soviet Union adopted a totalitarian rule that helped in achieving modern industrialization and increased agricultural output (Lautzenheiser 461).
Shifts in ideological strictures and policy imperatives enhanced modern industrialization. Stalin introduced a 5-year plan aimed at enhancing modern industrialization. Through the plan, the industrial performance of the Union rose considerably in 5 years (Lautzenheiser 461). However, industrialization came to be at huge human cost. The government introduced prison labor in large-scale schemes in mining and timber industries. Moreover, the government irresponsibly arrested people as a means on increasing human labor. In 1929, the government introduced a policy of enhancing collectives as a channel of augmenting agricultural production (Lautzenheiser 461). The government forced collectivization as a means of eliminating richer peasant. However, the rich peasant initially resisted the forced collectivization and they destroyed equipments slaughtered their animals and burnt their buildings. The social cost incurred during this period prompted the revolution of agriculture in Soviet Union that consequently made industrialization feasible. Collectivization drastically augmented the government grain collection. Between 1930 and 1931, the government harvested 22.1 million tons of grain (Lautzenheiser 461). While collectivization led to huge economic surplus for the government, Soviet Union industrialization became successive courtesy of the 5-year plan introduced by Stalin. Collectivization aimed at eliminating individual farms.
The government used impunity, unfairness and atrocious forces to enhance agricultural production and industrialization (Ryan 33). In order for the government to get money required for building new factories, Joseph Stalin confiscated all grain harvest from farmers. The government arrested, deported or executed the farmers who were in opposition of its strategies. The government also used vicious force to those who opposed the idea of collectivization of farms. The government introduced repressive measures (Ryan 33). To achieve modern industrialization and increased agricultural output in the Soviet Union, the government needed the cooperation by workers and peasants (Kort 210). Every factory required to have a display board that depicted workers’ output. The factories that did not attain the stipulated targets received public humiliation and criticism. Moreover, those in charge of these factories kept account of worker’s absenteeism, lateness and bad workmanship. Workers with unpleasant records were shot or introduced to forced labor on the Siberian Railway. Moreover, the government introduced high wages for good performers as a way of promoting augmented output. The government used brutal force to convince the peasants to cooperate. It utilized violent suppression to obtain the farms of rich peasants (Ryan 33).
The procedure of modern industrialization in the Soviet Union centered on different institutional arrangements, societal changes and policy adoption. The transformation of agriculture systems in country as well as exploitation of workers and peasantry by the government led to the victory of modern industrialization in the Soviet Union. Institutional change, policy imperatives and force towards workers and peasants gave birth to modern industrialization. The 5-year-old plan turned to be a crusade of induced industrialization. The government built new industries; mobilized workers and the result are still evident in the modern world. Therefore, the Soviet Union economy focused on the procedure of industrialization and agriculture through divergent policy imperatives, institutional arrangement and shift in ideological strictures.
Kort, Michael. The Soviet colossus: History and aftermath. Russia: M.E. Sharpe, Mar 1, 2010.
Lautzenheiser, Mark. History of economic thought: A critical perspective. Texas: M.E. Sharpe, Mar 1, 2011.
Ryan, James. Lenin’s terror: the ideological origins of early Soviet state violence. New York: Routledge, 2012.