Basic structure of the client system
Important survival factors found in humanity are present in the central core or basic structure that forms the five variables of the client system consisting of genetic or innate features having strengths and weaknesses of the system. Five variables in the basic structure are physiological, psychological, developmental, sociocultural, and spiritual.
Five variables in the client system
The client system has five interrelated variables with varying levels of improvement and various dynamic styles and possibilities. Physiological variables are related to structures of the body and their functions; Psychological variables are related to processes of the mind and related environmental influences, both from the inside as well as outside; Sociocultural variables are related to joint influences of social as well as cultural conditions; Developmental variables are related to developmental processes and actions related to age; and Spiritual variables are related to spiritual concepts and effects. These variables remain in constant relation with internal and external environmental stressors affecting the client, who is an open system.
Flexible line of protection in the client system
The flexible line of defense composes the external limits of the specified client or client system. Every line of defense and resistance has same defensive components that are connected to above noted five variables with specific defensive functions. The flexible line of protection has defensive accordion-like method that is found outside the normal line of defense, and saves it from violent effects of stressors. It moves the client system far from stressor responses. It is active, dynamic and unstable. It can quickly be changed over a moderately small period of time or in some particular influencing conditions. Stressor can lessen the efficacy of system.
Normal line of defense in the client system
The flexible line of defense helps in the protection of normal line of defense. The normal line of defense can be used in determination of aberrance from the general state of wellness. Influencing factors for this line of defense are variables of system, coping strategies, elements of lifestyle, spiritual and developmental affects, and various cultural thoughts. This line of defense is thought to be active as it can be widened or narrowed according to the time and condition.
Lines of resistance in the client system
Resistance lines are activated after attack of the normal line of protection by stressors. The resistance lines protect the central core. They have some of the clear and unclear resource factors, both external as well as internal, which support the central core and normal defense line of the client system, thus saving the integrity and stability of the system. A functionally dynamic relationship is present amongst all lines of defense and resistance in a client system. Input and output as well as comment on these border lines give remedial work to change, augment, and/or keep the system stable, with the purpose of gaining the most favorable wellness condition.
The Environment in The Neuman Systems Model
The environment is widely considered as every internal as well as external factor around the recognized client system. The Neuman Systems Model has three related environments: Internal environment having all forces that are inside the limits of the specified client system. It connects to the Neuman Systems Model intrapersonal factors or stressors; External environment having all interactive forces or influencers that are outside of the specified client or the system. It is in direct connection with both interpersonal as well as extrapersonal stressors (and factors); and Created environment, having an open system, exchanges energy with the internal as well as external environment. Unconsciousness of the system is the basis of the created environment. It gives safe conditions for proper function of the client system.
Stressors in The Neuman Systems Model
Within the perspective of the Neuman Systems Model, stressors are referred to as intrinsically neutral, inert or static. They are present both within as well as outside the client system. The client’s view of every stressor and the encounter behavior with the stressor present the result of effect, which can be useful or harmful. Neuman Systems Model has three stressors: Intrapersonal stressors are internal forces found within the client system (such as the autoimmune response); Interpersonal stressors are external interaction forces that are found outside the system at an appropriate proximal range (such as the communication patterns); and extrapersonal stressors are those external interactive forces that are found outside the client system at an appropriate distal range (such as the presence of financial issues in the system).