Keys Ideas by Aristotle
The idea of causality, Aristotle “Four causes” theory shows us the different reasons for the existence of something. The four causes allow us to define what material cause is, the efficient cause, formal cause (essence) and final cause (purpose). On the subject of primitive soul, Aristotle imagines the relation of the body to reproduction and nutrition (Green, 2005). In addition, he puts his focus on the immense field of the sensitive soul. Scientists in shaping their explanations about the origin of the universe apply this theory. On the contrary, theologians apply the same theory in justification of God as being the creator of the universe.
According to Aristotle (2009), tragedy refers to an imitation of an action that is considered serious and has magnitude. In addition, this tragedy is complete and is in a dramatic and pleasurable language casing incidents that arouse fear and pity. Aristotle further notes that tragedy has six key elements. These include plot, diction, character, melody, thought, and spectacle. Despite the last melody, diction, thought and spectacle being less important Aristotle feels that for a play to be successful, these four elements have to done well.
Diction involves the composition of the actual lines that are narrated. Diction illustrates how something is said. Aristotle defines thought as the power of saying something or anything. According to Aristotle, the element of melody has to synchronize with the play appropriately. This also applies to spectacle. He further notes that character requires a person who has believable personalities, is good in acting and the character suits their gender and station in life. The plot is the most important element in a tragedy. Aristotle suggests that an unhappy ending is a qualification for a tragedy to be the best.
Aristotle classifies friendship into three categories: friendship of virtue, friendship of pleasure ad friendship of utility. In his friendship theories, Aristotle argues that friendship breaks down in to self-love, related to love of utility and love of pleasure (Aristotle, 2009). Friendships of utility are fragile. They may end once these individuals seize to contact each other. People who always seek the company from each other since they enjoy staying together characterize friendships of pleasure. Friendships of virtue are true-life friends and these people are difficult to separate.
The Ideas of Plato
Santas (2010) describes the main argument of Plato in the Republic as that we are better off or happier by being just rather than unjust. Through this, Plato implies that a number of theories of justice and competing conception of happiness (Santas, 2010). A key point that is present in these theories is choice. In addition, Plato divides the human soul divides into reason appetite and spirit. Reasoning affects our ability to judge, whereas the spirit provides the emotional ability to feel empathy in judging situations. Plato insists that in order to make good and ethical choices, a balance has to exist between reason, appetite, and the spirit.
On the theory of knowledge, Plato argues that there is no absolute knowledge. He further notes that one person’s view is as valid as the views of the next person. To Plato, knowledge happens through reason and perception and not just senses alone.
According to Plato, love is what seeks beauty and appreciation. This loves is what creates beauty. Plato describes love as a way a person can move from a state of unawareness to a state of awareness and knowledge. Through this love, many things are brought closer to make beauty. Plato considers this love to be the main thing that triggers thought and effort in search of what is satisfies human needs.
Key ideas of Socrates
According to Socrates, our soul forms the most important part of our lives. He further notes that a soul that seeks fame, power, and wealth becomes ignorant and weak, whereas a soul that seeks justice and true knowledge becomes healthy. Socrates further suggested that all evil was because of ignorance. This ignorance is what motivates people to lie, steal cheat and harm others for purposes of the own benefit. Searching for justice and truth reduces chances of one being becoming ignorant and self-satisfied.
Failure of people to know what is important in life encourages them to seek wealth and fame through cheating and stealing. Socrates gives an insight on how people can improve their lives. He suggests that our souls become strong through personal criticism. Another key issue that Socrates insists on is the observance of law to lead a good life. Socrates defines an action to be right if it promotes our innermost and true happiness. Despite not attaining what we seek, the life we live strengthens our selves by searching for self-knowledge and truth.
The ideas of these philosophers’ help human kind to live better lives by influencing their thought patterns and choices. In a world where there is no justice, only war and violence can prevail. In addition, the views of these philosophers help to create an improved understanding of intricate phenomenon such as the origin of the universe. Aristotle’s theories on friendships shape up human relationships and further develop them by assisting them to relate better to each other.
Aristotle (2009). Nicomachean Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Green, A. (2005). Key Ideas for a Contemporary Psychoanalysis: Misrecognition and Recognition of the Unconscious. New York: Routledge.
Santas, G. (2010). Understanding Plato’s Republic. West Sussex: John Wiley &Sons.