Population growth in Japan has hit an alarming state, with Japan being identified as one of the countries in the world with a deficit growth rate. The population growth rate presents a deficit of 0.077. This means the country risks having less people than it presently has in the next few years. The population effects of a declining growth rate are wide and affect all sectors in the population including a drift in the economic development in the country (White, 2001). However, if the government alters people’s needs in terms of education, infrastructure, and health, the population may rise. This paper analyzes the population change in Japan and its meaning to both the internal and external population.
The population state in Japan is a situation that has alarmed the world over a long period now. The reason for the alarm is the decreasing population growth rates. The Japanese population has dropped since the World War II because of the healthcare challenges and the industrial developments in the country. The paper analyzes the population and economic state of Japan in the context of the decreasing population growth rates in the country.
Understanding the population issue in the context of population and poverty
The population pyramids in Japan indicate that the number of young people in the country falls short of the number of middle aged and aged people because of lower fertility and birth rates. The highest populations of the people in the country are between 40-70 years. This means that the population shift is tilting towards the old people. The effect of this structure is diverse in a number of sectors. In the economic development, the population shift and structure will result to low development because the number of people in the working population is decreasing with time (Sanchanta, 2006). The dependency ratio is also rising because the number of people in the working bracket is decreasing as the number of young and middle-aged people decreases. This means that the economic contribution of the people in the economy is low as fewer people are employed being in the young ages and old ages.
The transfer of earnings from the government to the young people and the aged people is also high which decreases economic developments. This means that some resources for developing the economy and establishing capital projects is diverted to helping the old people hence derailing the economic development in the country. The population growth pyramids also imply that the number of males and females is not equal with the males slightly higher that the females. This means that the gender composition of the population in terms of development is not balanced; hence, the growth cannot be tracked well. The population pyramid also shows that poverty in the country can easily decrease because the per capita income is relatively high. However, the per capita income in the future is likely to decrease because the number of births is lower hence in the future the number of employed people in the country is decreasing with time.
The population transition in Japan also affects poverty and development in the country. The experience of Japan presents unique indications about the future transition and the need for immigration to the neighboring countries. After the World War II, the country embarked on a wave of development plans, which have affected the growth in population in the country (Jones, 2007). The effects of the world war on the country in terms of weapons and chemicals used on health are also a major factor in the demographic transition in the country. Japan has experienced a drastic decrease in the population growth rate hence the population transition in the country presents a unique case in the world. In the population transition structure, the preindustrial stage is characterized by high birth and death rates, which imply that the overall population is high due to the transition.
However, during the industrial stage, the birth rates and death rates decrease although the death rate decreases faster than the birth rate until the two become equal in later stages of the industrial stages. The implication of the transition is relative. First, this transition is slowing down the rate of industrial growth in the country (Jones, 2007). This means that in the future, the poverty levels will increase due to a decrease in the rates of transition in population in the country. The population transition in the country will also result to deterioration of the economy because as the death rates and birth rates change, the aggregate population in the country will decrease hence the number of employed people will also decrease. In the end, the number of employed people will decrease hence the economic development will also decrease. However, in the transition rates change, the neighboring countries will feel the threat as poverty will decrease and the industrial development will be high in the future.
Japan’s education system has popularly been described as the backbone of the industrial and economic development in the country. This is because through the education, the country has managed to steer that development plan that lasted in the country, strengthening all sectors in the economy since the World War II. Japan has one of the most educated populations in the world. Enrollment is 100 % in the country and the illiteracy levels are zero. At the same time, the enrollment to high schools is at 96 % while the high school dropouts are at 2 % (De Bary, Gluck and Arthur, 2005). The effects of educating the population despite the low population transition rates make the populations secure. Education makes the young people more employable hence the labor at the disposal of the country increases due to the advancements in the education levels in the country.
Education improves the human capital in the country hence poverty levels decrease in Japan due to the high education levels. Furthermore, over 45 % of the students move to colleges and universities after the high school education. This means about 50% of the population have the capability to get top paying jobs locally and abroad. The aggregate economic development in the country is also likely to improve due to the educational advancement in the country.
Poverty and population structures in Japan coincide as the poverty levels swing depending on population structure and growth. Three major concepts explain the thrift in the population and its replication in poverty levels. Initially, the population pyramid in Japan implies that the population structure is changing from a youth-rich population to an old-based population thus threatening to raise poverty levels. Population transition also shows the same reason to worry as the growth rate is decreasing all the time since the World War II. However, the education system in the country presents a different view as knowledgeable and skilled society provides the country with an effective approach of eradicating poverty.
De Bary, W, Gluck C. and Arthur E (2005). Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. 2. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-12984-X/13-ISBN 978-0-231-12984-8; OCLC 255020415
Jones, R. S. (2007). Income inequality, poverty and social spending in Japan. Paris: Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/189961024?accountid=45049
Sanchanta, M. (2006, Nov 30). More families are falling into Japan's poverty trap the proportion of the population living in absolute poverty increased by 5 percentage points in the 1980s, reports mariko sanchanta. Financial Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/249948804?accountid=45049
White, J. W. (2001). Poverty, equality, and growth: The politics of economic need in postwar Japan. The American Political Science Review, 95(3), 752-753. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214421677?accountid=45049