Psychopathy is a pathological form of mental activity and behavior, which manifests itself in groundless anger, despair, doubt, uncertainty, a tendency in any way draw attention to themselves, to whining.
According to Robert D. Hare (Without Conscience, 1999), “The crucial issue is how to describe psychopaths. They are certainly self-centered and often act impulsively.” Psychopaths are often skilled liars, they can mislead people and manipulate to achieve their goals. They can cause pain and hurt. Often, however, psychopaths can be caught on some ridiculous and end up in hospital or prison. However, their ability to manipulate and charm is pretty good. This explains, for example, the fact that many psychopaths get parole. These considerations impel Hare on the main idea: "what drives psychopaths - a disease (instincts), or cold calculation in achieving the objectives”.
Some specific types of behavioral disorders in the past were called "moral insanity" or "moral idiocy." People with this behavior have recently called psychopaths. But then the term psychopath has been replaced by a more precise - a sociopath.
Sociopaths are individuals in their anti-social manner and therefore always enter into all sorts of conflicts, but never learn from the unpleasant experiences and penalties arising from their own behavior. These people are, apparently, the usual loyalty to the community, to their parents or to any of the others. They have not detected any specific defects, as long as they speak about something or talk, their defectiveness is the inability to act, keep up appearances, to answer for their actions and to respect the rights of others. In short, they are socially flawed.
Two Types of Sociopaths
Sociopaths can be of two types. The first type, latent, or passive, sociopath, most of the time behaves quite well, taking the lead of some external authority, such as religion or law , or for the time being attached to any more of a strong personality , he is inclined to regard as the ideal . (Here is talking not about those who use religion or by law to maintain a conscience, but of those who use them instead of conscience.) These people do not follow the usual considerations of decency and humanity, and only obey their acceptance of the interpretation of what is written in the book, or the law. Curious examples of latent sociopaths can act as "Christians" that infringe upon the representatives of other religions, as well as lawyers, devoid of any ethical guidelines, prompting the criminals as to violate the laws of human decency, not getting while in prison.
The second type is the active sociopath. It lacks both internal and external constraints, although it may be for some time to pacify myself and put on mask integrity, especially in the presence of persons awaiting him from a decent and responsible behavior. But as soon as these active sociopaths are beyond the reach of adults or authority figures, requiring them to good conduct, they immediately cease to restrain themselves.
It is very difficult in practice to determine whether a person is a psychopath or sociopath. Their behavior is manifested in many ways similar. In this essay, the differences between psychopaths and sociopaths will be discussed. These differences lie primarily in the causes of such behavior, the motives in the perception of reality.
The Differences Between Sociopath and Psychopath. Commonly Known Practice.
There are not many real sociopaths and psychopaths, but the terms are used in different contexts, such as when a person wants to express that someone is always very negative towards others behave.
Sociopaths can be very bad empathize with others, they cannot understand the feelings of others, and feel no compassion.
Therefore, a sociopath - in contrast to psychopaths - not estimate the consequences of their own actions to others as the spoken and the behavior have on others and what emotions are triggered it. The difference, therefore, is a psychopath, a sociopath that is fundamentally disturbed in his interactions with others.
Today the term is hardly used in contrast to the old name it is called now more of an antisocial personality disorder. This is usually diagnosed when a person constantly ignored social rules; no relationships with other people (friends, love relationships) can be obtained and tends to be very aggressive, behavior disapprovingly. Mostly this applies also to psychopaths.
Cause may be about that a person has not learned appropriate social norms. Also, different brain damage can lead to the social consequences of their own behavior cannot be assessed. This damage can be inherited.
Psychopaths can certainly build relationships with other people - as opposed to sociopaths. However, they behave exploitative and uncontrolled. Again, there are similarities to the so antisocial personality disorder.
So a psychopath is not just some anti-social behavior, added yet a clear sense of self-importance, the contempt of others (narcissism), and the manipulation of others to implement their own goals. A psychopath can understand the emotions of others, but they deliberately ignored.
Even something like a psychopath lacks a conscience, so an internal supervisory body that monitors its own actions with regard to certain standards and responding to violations with negative feelings. This is also a substantial difference to the sociopath.
In addition, psychopaths behave - in contrast to sociopaths - often impulsive. This means that a person get bored quickly and have poorly controlled, so that aggressive behavior often occur in different situations.
Thus sociopaths fall in front of all by a disturbed behavior in relationships with other people because they cannot judge their reactions. In contrast, a psychopath goes beyond the interests of others aware.
The Vision of Robert D. Hare
Hare studied both disorders, psychopathy and sociopathy, for many years. As time goes by, the ability to gather information is constantly expanding. As a result, Hare came to the conclusion that between a sociopath and a psychopath are still some differences. Here they are, according to his classification:
- The difference in intelligence. Both - sociopath and psychopath does not take into account the feelings, rights and safety of others. However, psychopaths in this case several "intelligent", in connection with a sense of their own safety. Both lovers of risk, but a sociopath is easier to "catch" than a psychopath - a psychopath often contrives to avoid exposure or punishment, while the sociopath is unable to understand their mistakes and draw conclusions. A psychopath can plan the action even explore options "exposure" to draw conclusions. In contrast, the sociopath is doing the same thing over and over again, no matter how many times he has "caught". Thus, the difference is that one has “no intelligence”, and the other – has
- Repentance. Unlike the psychopath, sociopath cannot feel the inner feelings if they caused injury to someone or something destroyed - they are not guilty conscience because their brains are simply unable to process this information for normal people familiar way. Sure, they may try to portray the "repentance" in the form in which they understand it, but it will not mean that they actually feel something. Psychopaths are more susceptible to such emotions - they may feel remorse, especially if they are exposed (and largely for this reason.) Thus, one may feel others may not.
- Discipline. History shows sociopathic old problems with friends in childhood, poor school performance, further social problems (in general, in all that it requires a certain degree of responsibility to their position.) They believe they have a right to everything, they are rarely respected superiors, public authorities and relatives. In contrast, psychopaths may show some degree of respect, for example, the powers that be, for the most likable people in a particular group, and others. Thus, the difference is that one has a feeling discipline and others - no.
- Boredom. Psychopaths are generally smart people, creative, so they can find a way to dispel the boredom (normally). Sociopath is satisfied with the conflict, hysterical, inappropriate behavior in public. The Sociopath is usually mentally unstable. He has no self-discipline or mental ability to perform fully all that they have planned and started. The main source entertained sociopath is a conflict with other people, they climb into someone else's life and annoy people. A psychopath can do about the same, but it is only a side effect, which is caused by their self-interest and a desire to get attention. But this is not their goal in itself. Thus, according to Hare, here is the difference in the method of obtaining pleasure: "One is narrow, one is not".
Psychopaths in “The Mask of Sanity”
For those who are trying to understand psychopathy, Hervey Cleckley's book "The Mask of Sanity" will be basic and absolutely essential to read. It is a study of psychopaths is not necessarily related to the criminal type.
"Cute", "charming", "intelligent", "attentive", "producing an excellent impression", "credible" and "enjoying success with women." Checkley uses this description in his famous studies of psychopaths. Of course, the psychopaths as "irresponsible," "self-destructive" and so on. These descriptions highlight the great difficulties and mysteries that surround the study of psychopathy.
Psychopaths seem to have in abundance by the very traits that are so willing to have normal people. Carefree confidence in himself psychopath seems almost impossible dream. As a rule, this belief tends to purchase "normal" people, visiting different psychological training. In many cases, the magnetic attraction of the psychopath for members of the opposite sex seems almost supernatural.
The underlying hypothesis Cleckley is that the psychopath does suffer from significant mental illness: a deep and incurable affective deficit. If he really feels anything at all, it is only the most superficial emotions. He makes a strange and self-destructive things because consequences that would fill the average person shame or self-hatred just feel uncomfortable , do not affect the psychopath at all. The fact that the other would be a misfortune for him just a passing inconvenience.
Cleckley also substantiates the view that psychopathy is a very common occurrence in society. He gathered some examples of psychopaths who generally function normally in society as businessmen, doctors, and even psychiatrists. Some researchers believe the criminal psychopathy - often called “antisocial personality disorder " - as excessive to the extreme manifestation of the properties of normal personality .
As a result of the Hare's job, it becomes clear that a psychopath and sociopath is called the same thing. Task is to determine how exactly the type of disorders susceptible person, pretty tough, this requires experienced professionals and a lot of time and effort. In addition, as a result may be that the person is both a psychopath and sociopath.
Robert D. Hare. Psychopaths: New Trends in Research, Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1995
Robert D. Hare. Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Case of Diagnostic Confusion, Psychiatric Times: February 1996: Vol. XIII Issue 2
Robert D. Hare. Without Conscience. The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us. Guilford Press, 1999
Cleckley, Hervey. The Mask of Sanity. Revised Edition. Mosby Medical Library, 1982