Rationality can have different meaning depending on the discipline in topic. Rationality, however, can be perceived as a variable. In philosophy it can be defined as away of reasoning that is the way human beings conclude matters with a consideration of the most deliberate point. It can also be defined as ones involvement in a belief and the reason why he or she chooses to believe, or even ones involvement in an action and the reasons behind the action. In psychology, economics, political science, and sociology, the term rationality is associated with benefit and cost ratio. There fore apart from reasoning a rational idea or decision is a decision that can lead to optimal achievement of a goal or problem solving. Organization and individuals can be considered rational if in their decision making process achieves optimal benefits.
Rationality therefore is an important factor when it comes to real world problem solving. In making a rational decision, a decision to do something to reach a goal or rather to come up with a mean to achieve an end is important. Means and ends must be looked at as related considering hierarchical chain. In the decision making process, those options are considered to be appropriate ways of achieving desired ends. Ends, however, are considered as merely to serve the means to more eventual objectives. We are therefore led to the percievement of a hierarchical or series of ends. Rationality is connected with the building of means-ends series of such kind. The fact stating that achievement may be reliant to their force on other ends that are more distant results to the organization of these goals in a series – each stage to be taken into account as an end in relation to the stages below it and as a way to the stages lying above it. An analysis of rationalility in behavior in the sense of a means and end series has to take into consideration some factors related to this abstraction: that it observes comparative element in the process of decision making that it does not result in a successful selection of the elements that are fact in the process of decision making from the elements that have values, and finally, that it provides not enough recognition to the impulse variable in the behavior that has purpose (Simon, 76). A theory concerning decision making in the sense of possibilities of alternative behavior and their end results achieves all above aims. This theory defines the purpose of decision making as containing three actual steps. These steps are as follows. The listing of all the alternative strategies, the identification of all the end results that are achieved due to each of these plans and the comparative the process of finding out of these categories of end results.
The series of such decisions which determines behavior over some stretch of time may be called a strategy” (Simon, 76). Making the same choice if the same situation is repeated is important. (Bakka and Fivesdal, 86) In real world there are of course barriers to this method.
Unconscious skills, reflexes and also ones habit acts as limits in this model. Reflexes here includes ones values and how he or she perceives conceptions of the purpose, which may differ from the goals of the organization and by the extent of ones levels of knowledge and the availability of information. Actual behavior therefore is relatively limited when compared to objective rationality at least in three ways these ways includes; rationality needs a complete know how and expectation of the end result that will come up on each option. In fact, know how of end result is always in pieces. Since these dilemmas are present in the future, imagination must supplement the lack of relevant experienced feeling when putting value to them. But these values cannot be perfectly expected. Rational behavior needs a choice among all options that are possible. In the case of actual behavior, only very limited of all these alternatives that are possible come to mind.
In day to day encounter we experience some problems which requires solution to ensure that activities of government, organization and individual runs smoothly. The conclusion reached needs to ensure maximum benefit is achieved while the costs are reduced to minimal levels. This requires rationality in coming up with conclusion or rather solution to a particular problem or achieving of a goal; to a particular problem. Real world problems are the problems encountered in day to day activities. These problems include economical problems, environmental, political, social etc. No single (individual, organization or state) can achieve the requirements using the classic way of decisions making processes. The method can be applied in enquiries, to evaluate how individuals and bodies develop goals and also values, description and judgment of various alternatives, collect and put into use of information, and come up with conclusions or rather decisions.
National security enables the state to maintain survival by the use of political mightiness, economical and military. It also enables the government to exercise diplomacy. Developed mainly in the USA after the Second World War National security focuses on a wide range of aspects. For national security to be achieved a state should have food security, energy security, financial security among many other factors.
Many factors can act as a threat national security ,these factors can include other state considered to be enemy state , natural catastrophe, violent non state actors, environmental pollution, non governmental organization among other factors . To ensure national security several factors must be put into consideration. These factors includes, diplomacy which helps the state to isolate threat and bring allies together, compelling cooperation by marshalling financial strength, maintaining an effective military forces, implementing the citizen defense, being prepared for emergency cases, resilience, critical infrastructure, establishment of national intelligence unit to protect the state against threats and protecting of classical or national information, the use of police mostly the secret police to protect the state against internal threat. For these to be put in place, rationality is a basic requirement. This is to enable the state achive maxiumum security and reduce national threats to the least levels possible with the use of minimal financial resources possible. For this to be possible proper governing by the state is an important requirement. This however, greatly depend son rationality. If there exists no barriers to man’s rationality, the theory of administration would be barren. It would entail of the single rule which is; always choose that option, among those that are available, this will result to the most satisfactory realization of your goals. The requirement for a theory of administration lies within the fact that there exists practical limitations to the rationality of the human beings, and that the barriers are dynamic, hence depend on the environment of the organization in which the decision of the individuals take place. The role of administration is to design this surrounding that a person will perceive as closely as possible towards rationality. This is the judgment in accordance to the goals of the organization in his or her process of decision making. The main concern of the theory of administration posses the boundary between rationality and non-rationality factors of man’s behavior in terms of social affairs. This states why it is important for the state to come up and maintain a stable national security.
Both external and internal external mechanisms are also important factors when it comes to achieving national security. External mechanisms can be defined as “the stimuli with which the organization seeks to influence the individual” (Simon, 76). They are mechanisms that are involved in the initiation of behavior in a defined or rather in a particular direction. Internal mechanisms on the other hand is defined as those “which determines his response to the stimuli” (Simon, 76).
In other words they are those mechanisms that results to behavior that persists in a particular manner once the organization or in this case the state has tuned it into that particular direction.
Individual psychological states are connected with internal mechanisms. This means that their identification and activities is a difficulty when it comes to psychology, while the external mechanisms are considered because they can be instilled by some other persons other than the individual they are aimed to stimulate, and therefore, they play a main role in administrative structure. State’s influence should therefore be viewed to be within the external mechanisms.
The state’s influences include two principal forms, expectations and directors to stimuli or directors to ones attention. States or rather governments allows stable expectations to be coined by every single member of the society in relation to the behavior other members under some particular conditions. Institutions such as states avails the general directors to stimuli and attention. That directs the behaviors of the society. That provides the members of the society with the bridging objectives that influences the actions.
Budgetary or fiscal affairs are concerned with financial planning. A fiscal affair refers to the public money. It is important for both organizations and individuals to partake this important process. Rationality is also important when it comes to budgeting. It is therefore important to be armed with appropriate information when it comes to budgeting. Using the information one can follow particular steps to come up with an ideal budget. Within the steps the purpose of information in the process of decision making is then to come up with which end result comes up upon which of the optional plans (Simon, 76, p. 68), the difficulty of options becomes one of defining end results, finding them out, and relating them with alternatives of behavior. This evaluation considers a listing of the end results in their levels of priority, and the choice of that plan which concurs to the option on top of the list (Simon, 76).
You can make a decision in case you are faced with a set of options. The consequences of the options can be ranked in accordance to your priority of treatment. This is also referred to as value-scale process. The prioritized application is transitive. Strategy is defined as “decision, or choice, is the process by which one of the alternatives for each moment’s behavior is selected to be carried out. In choosing the options which is on top of your value and scale one is directed to achieve his or her goals. This is called maximization.
Rationality also becomes an important aspect when it comes to education. Education is the process of training an individual or a group of individuals intellectually or morally. Training makes the state members ready to reach satisfactory decisions by themselves, without any need for constant practice of the state to intervene. Training involves both educational achievement and everyday supervision and formal directions within the state. Training is practical in the process of decision making wherever conspiquos elements are the picture in a big amounts of decisions. Training may provide the trainee with vital facts when it comes to dealing with the decisions. It may supply him or her with a frame to look back to for his thinking.