Cancer is a huge problem of all mankind. We know that this is the second disease after cardiovascular diseases in terms of mortality. Currently, a lot of research is conducted to understand the reasons for which there is a cancer, find a cure and to develop methods of prevention. Nevertheless, the problem of cancer has been and remains a priority for the medical community. In developed countries, there is a tendency to reduce the increase in the incidence and mortality from cancer. The main increase in deaths from the disease occurs in developing countries.
There are more than 100 types of cancer that can affect almost all organs and tissues of the human body. The most dangerous is lung cancer, upper digestive tract, stomach cancer and breast cancer.
In this article we will talk about breast cancer: What are the symptoms of breast cancer? What are the risk factors? How to diagnose breast cancer? What is a possible treatment?
In most cases, breast cancer affects women, but men are not protected against it. Characteristic symptoms of breast cancer include (“Signs and symptoms of breast cancer”, 2015):
1) Tumors. One major factor is the presence of tumors, lumps or nodules in the mammary gland. Fortunately, this factor is easy to see by yourself. It can be a benign tumor, but the woman is desirable to immediately seek medical attention.
2) Discharge from the nipple. At a time when the woman is not breastfeeding or is pregnant, any discharge from the breast should be cause for concern. This is another important symptom of breast cancer. Depending on the stage and nature of the disease, highlight color can be different - from white to a bloody admixture of pus.
3) Violation of the integrity of the skin. In some cases of breast cancer, skin surface can be damaged: there are small scars.
4) The shape of the breast. At some stages of breast cancer is changing its shape. This symptom is also easy to see yourself as compares views of the affected breast and breast health. In general, a symptom can be considered as any change in color or shape of the breast.
5) The increase in lymph nodes. When cancer cells enter the lymph nodes, there is swelling of the lymph nodes. The reason for seeking medical attention can serve underarm lymph node enlargement or swelling of the armpit.
It is believed that the most important risk factor is age. The older the patient, the greater is the risk of breast cancer. Particularly strong probability increases after 40 years. Among other factors - heredity (the presence of breast cancer in mother, sisters or daughters), gene mutations are inherited, the presence of benign tumors, smoking and the use of hormones (“What are the risk factors for breast cancer?”, 2015).
The first stage of diagnosis of breast cancer is a consultation with a specialist profile oncologist. The first analysis, which does the patient, is an ultrasound. As an additional study doctor refers the patient to MRI breast. MRI allows us to refine the data obtained from the results of US. In addition, MRI can also be a biopsy of the breast. Another option studies for diagnosis is a highly sensitive radioisotope study (“How is breast cancer diagnosed?”, 2015).
Treatment of breast cancer is divided into curative or palliative. In the case of radical treatment is performed complete tumor removal. In the case of palliative treatment when the tumor has already gone beyond the breast and remove it is not possible to carry out treatment, aiming to extend the life of the patient. Depending on patient age, tumor size, metastasis and tumor type doctor prescribes a combination of the methods for treatment. Among the treatments for breast cancer are:
1) Radiation therapy
4) Biological Therapy
5) Hormone Therapy
Application of these methods in various combinations gives a fairly good prognosis. Surgery is the most effective, but the most radical method. Chemotherapy helps prevent further growth of the tumor. Radiation therapy can cause tumor shrinkage and destruction of some particular metastasis. Many types of breast tumors are hormone-dependent. In this case, hormone therapy may slow the rate of tumor growth. Biological therapy is the newest form of treatment. It is used to communicate with mutagenic cancer cells to destroy them (“How is breast cancer treated?”, 2015).
Thus, in this paper it was shown that the problem of cancer (in particular breast cancer) is a serious problem for the whole of humanity. This disease still is not treated effectively. Therefore, everyone should know what preventive measures can reduce the chances of developing breast cancer in the body. It is obvious that these measures should be aimed at, not to be among the risk factors for this disease. It is necessary to give up smoking and drinking. Another important point is the detection and timely treatment of various breast diseases.
How is breast cancer diagnosed? (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-diagnosis
How is breast cancer treated? (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-treating-general-info
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-signs-symptoms
What are the risk factors for breast cancer? (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-risk-factors