1. The goal of this research is to discover the real nature of the problem and to suggest new possible solutions or new ideas.
This research example may be categorized under the exploratory research. Exploratory research is the research of a new topic or phenomena on which prior information is less or not available. As the example at hand aims to uncover the root cause of the problem, exploratory research may provide the ideal foundation for conducting research. The solutions required are supposed to be unique in nature; therefore, exploratory research might contribute towards identifying these new methods. Furthermore, the basic purpose of an exploratory research is to gain familiarity with a concept in order to devise a new solution for the phenomena at hand. As the main goal for this research example is to suggest new ideas; consequently, exploratory research serves as the best option.
2. A food manufacturer wants to know the demographics of people who purchase organic foods.
This example is clearly suggestive of the descriptive research methodology. As the food manufacturer simply wants to know the demographics of people consuming organic food; therefore, the researcher would best be able to attain this information through descriptive research. Since, the research example does not ask for any details and just wants to know the demographics of people who purchase organic foods; therefore, any other methodology of research may be inadequate. This method would not give any information about why these people consume organic foods or any other reason rather; it would simply conclude the demographics of people consuming this kind of food.
3. A firm is considering hiring American celebrity Paris Hilton to endorse its products.
This research example may be researched upon by two methods depending upon the perspective of the researcher that he/she wants to adopt. The causal research method may help the researcher to determine the impact of hiring Paris Hilton upon the product she would be endorsing. As the causal research identifies the cause and effect relationship, the researcher would be able to determine how hiring Paris Hilton would impact on the process of product endorsement.
On the other hand, exploratory research may also help in providing relevant information to the researcher. Through exploratory research the researcher may be able to identify the method in which Paris Hilton should be used for product endorsement rather than just identifying the impact on the product. Exploratory research may help the researcher form the basis for causal research; therefore, it can be said that both research methodologies may be used for this example.
4. British Airways would like to test in-flight internet services on one of its regular flights from New York to Tokyo. The company charges $30 one week and $15 the next week.
This research example would best be researched by using the causal research methodology. As the company changed the prices it charged to observe the impact on the internet service and customer reactions; therefore, a causal research would help identify the relationship. As the researcher is clear about the research objective he/she can easily use causal research to help devise conclusions or make informed decisions. Any other research method used in this situation may also provide some conclusion, but it would not be in line with the researcher’s main objective.
5. This type of study attempts to discover answers to the following questions; who, what, when, where, or how much.
Exploratory research helps to uncover the; who, what, where, where, or how much questions. It provides extensive in-depth information about a particular phenomena or concept which the researcher wants to examine. It helps provide information from various aspects that assists the researcher to determine the concept in detail. Furthermore, it also assists in providing a basis for future research. Exploratory research is different from other research methods because it does not limit itself to one particular aspect of research. By providing a multitude of viewpoints through exploratory research the researcher is open to exploring newer ideas from existing concepts and provides a platform for further research.
6. A manufacturer investigates whether consumers will buy a new pill that replaces eating a meal.
The manufacturer may use descriptive research for this purpose. As the researcher simply wants to know the consumer’s attitude towards a substitute for eating a meal the descriptive research methodology may be applicable. The research objective and question is straightforward and clear; thus, allowing the researcher clarity in his research process. However, since prior information may not be available on this area of research the manufacturer may use exploratory research and base his/her descriptive research upon the findings of the exploratory research.
7. Cosmopolitan magazine sends out a cover in selected markets featuring a female model to half of its readers and a cover with a female and male model to the other half of its readers to test differences in purchase response between the two groups.
This example suggests that a causal research method would be most suitable. The researcher aims to study the differences in reaction of readers of having different covers in different markets. The researcher may be able to identify the independent, dependent, intervening and other such variables in order to get better conclusions. As the research is specific in nature the researcher may be able to determine clear cause and effect relationships. When the researcher is clear about his objectives he/she may use causal research for instance in situations similar to the example provided.
8. A hair care manufacturer interviews wholesalers, retailers, and customers to determine the potential for a new shampoo package.
The research example may use elements of exploratory and causal research. The exploratory research would help determine the what, when, how, where questions; whereas, the causal research may develop a cause and effect relationship between shampoo packaging and the various respondents. Causal research may be a better option, but the benefit of exploratory research in this example may not be underestimated. The researcher may show a prototype of a new packaging to respondents in order to identify the cause and effect relationship of the variable under study.
9. This type of research attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inference from a samples characteristics and testing hypotheses.
This definition is suggestive of the descriptive research methodology. Descriptive research is useful in making inferences when the phenomenon is known to the researcher. As the researcher is aware of the various characteristics of the population, he/she may use the descriptive research methodology in order to prove or disprove the hypothesis.
10. On the CBS television show Undercover Boss, top executives disguised as middle level or lower level employees investigate company departments to discover potential issues or problems.
Researchers undercover may use the exploratory research methodology as they want to find out the problem areas, and are not aware of the real problems. The researcher may be able to survey what the root-cause problems are through exploratory research in this specific example. The researcher probably does not know what the real issues are as the example suggests; therefore, he/she needs to examine various aspects of the employees before concluding research.
Causal Research | Definition and Concept | Marketing | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.. (n.d.). Causal Research | Definition and Concept | Marketing | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.. Retrieved April 21, 2014, from http://www.mbaskool.com/business-concepts/marketing-and-strategy-terms/1588-causal-research.html
Exploratory Research. (n.d.). Exploratory Research. Retrieved April 21, 2014, from http://www.htm.uoguelph.ca/MJResearch/ResearchProcess/ExploratoryResearch.htm