The revival of letter writing traces its roots to the intervention of the printing press, increased availability of books, the changing outlook on religions and rising literacy levels (Roberts, 1843). In the old days, letters were not widely used since the level of literacy was generally low. Very few people could read and write. The Lutheran church in Sweden, by 18th century motivated the faster rise in literacy level due to an initiative that ordered people to be able to read the bible. In 1870, the government of Australia introduced a compulsory education scheme for combating ignorance. The US also ensured all believers could read the bible for themselves increasing the levels of literacy to 100%.
Only men wrote letters up to the 18th century when gender division of letter writing policy began to be questioned (Canales, J. 2010). Letter writing later became an essential part of childhood instruction in England and America (Braton and Hall 2000). In 1860, the idea of the post office was conceived.
The first envelopes were made of cloth, animal skins or vegetable parts. The invention of the typewriter was in the 1868, in 1873, the first Remington was in the market. Mark twain was the first author to present a manuscript typed in one, having bought it in the 1874. The first women who used these in offices brought about gender changes in the workplaces. In those years, a dead letters office, where all misdirected letters ended was introduced.
Letter writing has not been abandoned to date, official and evidenced communication is usually written in formal letters. Due to an improvement in technology, the use of electronic mail has been adopted replacing the use of written letters. The use of post offices has also persisted. Today firms write letter to other firms and individuals in order who are business related. Orders are placed in the form of letters and business agreements done through letters. Potential employees communicate to prospective employers through the use of letters (Canales, J. 2010). These, in collaboration with other forms of technology like the availability of information technology, have adversely increased productivity over time.
- Identify the transformation that takes place in a restaurant.
For a new business idea to be put into practice and the goals achieved, the implementer has to allow the business to go through a transformation process, which is where resources are put into the business with an aim of adding value to the to the standard that potential clients can desirably pay for them. These resources are referred to as business inputs and include; labor, which in the restaurant perspective include the employees, the management, and the supplies, and their time that they devote to the restaurant. All the natural resource including the plants that provide shades in the restaurant garden, the playground and the general land occupied by the premises of the restaurant are also other inputs. The third input is the capital, including physical assets owned or used by the business in its production process, for example machinery, computers, transport etc. it also include finance or the investment required for the business activities to be undertaken.
The restaurant management makes critical decisions such as the amounts of capital required at specific stages, the kind of labor to employ for a specific task at appropriate times. The outputs are reflected on the variety of dishes and services rendered to the customers and the personnel relation with the customers. The environment in the restaurant should be friendly to the customers. When the employees are well organized and timed, the suppliers accurately deliver according to orders put and the restaurant management does its job properly, a complete transformation will occur in the business.
- The computer – especially the PC – is believed to be responsible for much of the increased productivity in the 1990s. What do think will be the “next big thing” to have a major impact on national and global productivity?
The use of computers in business generally has been for production purposes, especially the PCs and some special purpose computers. These computers accepts large volumes of data, process them at high speeds to produce accurate information. They have lower the cost of production by replacing several personnel assigned to a particular duty which just one or a few computers. In the production process, the emergence of developed information technologies, people are capable of knowing about the existence of firms that they desire to interact with; the products and services they offer and the rates at which they offer them. Orders can be place in the comfort of their homes with the utilization of internet facilities. There are also several social sites such as Facebook and twitter where business people market their businesses and business ideas. This, in my opinion is the next big thing to impact on productivity.
- What is the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO)? Do you see it as primarily good or bad for the U.S?
The world trade organization is an organization formed with an intention of supervising and liberalizing international countries. It has the following functions and roles. The WTO organization facilitates implementation, administration and operations and advances the objectives of the Multilateral Trade Agreements. It provides negotiation forums among the members concerning multilateral trade relations in matters that fall under the Agreement in the annexes of this agreement (Zhou, W. 2012). The organization administers the understanding on rules and procedures that govern the settling of disputes that arise in the interaction of its members. It is also responsible for the administration of the mechanisms to be adopted in trade policy review. Finally, the WTO cooperates with the International Monetary Fund and the National Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), as well as appropriate and its associated agencies. In my opinion, WTO is appropriate for the US since it indulges in business relations and it requires protection from the organization. The organization also conducts representation and advocacy for its members in various forums.
- Identify one discipline and one technology that you think will contribute in a major way to the future development of OM and describe why they will contribute
An important discipline that should be considered in operations management in order to foster development is the information system. Several studies have established that production is usually at its peak when the system of information is integrated in such a way that all factors are considered in decision making. The channels of information should clearly distinguish the various levels involved. The technology that will contribute to OM is the implementation of internet advertising in the marketing process. This leads to the business reaching many customers more cheaply and faster.
Canales, J. (2010). A tenth of a second: A history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zhou, W. (2012). The Role of Regulatory Purpose under Articles III: 2 and 4--Toward Consistency between Negotiating History and WTO Jurisprudence. World Trade Review, 11(1), 81-118.
Roberts W. (1843) History of Letter-writing: From the Earliest Period to the Fifth Century Mississippi: W. Pickering.
Braton D. and Hall N. (2000). Letter Writing As a Social Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing