Video Game Consoles
Game console is a specialized electronic device designed and built for gaming. The most commonly used output device is the TV or, rarely, a computer monitor - so that such devices are called prefixes, since they put to a display device independent. Portable (handheld) gaming systems have their own built-in display (nowhere puts), so call them several PlayStations correctly.
Initially, game consoles different from personal computers on a number of important traits - they are supposed to use the TV as the primary display device, and supports most of the standard peripheral devices created for personal computers - such as a keyboard or a modem. Until recently, almost all sold consoles intended to run proprietary games that are distributed on a non- support for other platforms.
However, with the development of video game consoles, the difference between them and the personal computers became gradually eroded - some consoles may allow connection keyboard, hard drive, and even running them on the operating system Linux. Schemes and some video software can be distributed by way of exception, under a free license.
In this paper we will discuss the most well-known consoles – Xbox and PlayStation.
Xbox is a game console developed and manufactured by Microsoft. First went on sale on November 15, 2001. This is the first independent performance of Microsoft game consoles on the market after a joint project with the company SEGA to develop a version of the Windows CE operating system for game console Dreamcast. Microsoft Xbox directly competed with the Sony PlayStation 2 and Nintendo GameCube. Xbox has become the heir console Xbox 360 and later Xbox One. Initially, the console had a name DirectXbox, in honor of the team DirectX, and that created the console. When the console was first announced, the name did not like the company, bought the rights to sell. With Internet -based survey among users was formed 20 new name options, among which won "Xbox".
Operating system for the Xbox is greatly modified Windows 2000. During adaptation to a game console in Windows 2000 has been changed a lot of code (in part, responsible for working with file systems), so that the operating system cannot be called a game console belonging to the line of Microsoft Windows. Experts call it «Xbox OS».
Before entering the game console market, Microsoft has worked on the development of operating systems, games for personal computers and on software development. The American company is also developing peripherals for PCs : keyboard, mouse, racing wheels, game pads, joysticks. In 1998, Microsoft worked with Sega on the customization of the operating system Windows CE console Dreamcast. Three years later, the company introduced its first gaming console Xbox. This console was based on proprietary technology and Microsoft has taken the second place in sales of consoles worldwide.
Xbox 360 is running an operating system created specifically for this console. This operating system, analysts called the Xbox 360 OS, is a 90% rewrite of the operating system for the first Xbox (Xbox OS), and that, in turn, represents a 90% rewrite of Windows 2000. Thus, the operating system is running on the Xbox 360, slightly smaller percentage of code from Windows 2000, and the rest is written specifically replacements and additions.
However, it is worth noting that it was the first firmware. The following is a modification of the kernel firmware in parallel with desktop versions of Windows, but with an emphasis on hardware. The latest firmware version is layered download (as in Windows 7), tiled interface on Windows 8 and similarity kernel as MinWin. Also added support for Zune HD services and Zune.
1.Kinect Adventures! It is a sports video game for the Xbox 360 that uses Kinect and controller capabilities included with this controller. The game was presented in 2010 at the exhibition Electronic Entertainment Expo in Los Angeles. The game is a collection of five adventure and sports games and was developed by Good Science Studio, a subsidiary studio Microsoft.
The game uses the movement of the whole body and allows the player to participate in various mini-games, each of which is equipped with both single-player and multiplayer. Each mini - game lasts about three minutes. The game also supports multiplayer Xbox Live. More Kinect RGB camera takes pictures during the game, which can be reviewed, with the possibility to download them to a special website, and from there you can download to your computer or other wearable device.
The purpose of the mini-games is to get the highest number of icons that are already in turn allow players to earn medals affecting the progress of the game. Medals can be bronze, silver, gold and platinum.
2. Battlefield 3. Xbox computer game in the genre of first-person shooter, one of the games in the series Battlefield, developed by studio DICE and published by Electronic Arts. «Battlefield 3 " is a direct sequel to «Battlefield 2", which was released in 2005. In the PC version of the maximum number of players on one map is 64 players that according to studio is optimal (video cutting out the game with 64 players for the first time shown in the middle of August 2011), and in the console versions for Xbox 360 maximum number of players 24. At the end of June 2012 sold about 15 million copies of the game (not including sold supplements thereto).
Game engine Frostbite 2, according to the developers, is largely completely new engine, not based on Frostbite 1.0 or Frostbite 1.5. According to DICE, Frostbite first version did not allow the studio to carry out all my ideas about Battlefield 3, so simultaneously with the development of games on Frostbite 1.0 has been allocated a separate team working on the Frostbite 2.0. According to DICE in February 2011, the team Battlefield 3 is just beginning to develop technological capabilities Frostbite 2.0.
PlayStation is the fifth generation game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment Ken Kutaragi -led. Release console held December 3, 1994 in Japan, the U.S. console appeared Sept. 9, 1995, and in Europe - September 29, 1995. Is the first console game system in line PlayStation. In 2000 he published an updated version of the console called the PSone, which differed from the original PlayStation significantly smaller size. Console has proved very popular, providing Sony breakthrough in the gaming industry, to the point where reigned supreme Nintendo and Sega.
First conceptual ideas for PlayStation, dated 1986. Nintendo made attempts to use disks since NES (Famicom Disk System), but there were problems with the carrier. A recording made on a magnetic disk, easily removable, moreover, there is a risk of piracy. Therefore, when there specification CD-ROM/XA (extension of the standard CD-ROM, allows you to record to disk as compressed audio and arbitrary binary data), Nintendo interested in him. CDROM / XA was developed by Sony and Philips. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a supplement having preliminary title «SNES-CD». Was contracted, and the work began. Choice Sony as a partner was made because of previous trades: Ken Kutaragi, the man who would later be called the "father of PlayStation», was the one who once persuaded Nintendo to use the processor Sony SPC700 as a sound synthesizer for the SNES, making an impressive demonstration of the chip.
At the moment, the latest development of the Sony company is Sony PlayStation 4 – a game console eighth generation, the fourth in a family of stationary gaming systems «PlayStation». The official announcement of PlayStation 4 at a conference held PlayStation Meeting 2013 February 20, 2013, the show was held consoles at E3, sales began in November 2013.
Console is positioned exactly as game console for games and gamers, which differs somewhat from the current trend in the market, according to which consoles promoted as home media center (Microsoft Xbox One, Valve Steam Machines). Console is running an operating system Orbis, which is a modified version of FreeBSD 9.0.
There was reported about change of producer graphic solutions: as a new supplier appears AMD (Radeon family with a high clock frequency, support VRAM, Native OpenGL and Direct 11) and not NVidia, on the decision of which runs the PlayStation 3. This theoretically allows the chip to display video in the resolution 4096x2160 (many questioned, but later supported by sources close to the producer) and 3D-games as 1080p.
As a result, during the official announcement declared that the PlayStation 4 will be based on solutions from AMD - the architecture of Jaguar, the main difference of which is the placement of existing CPU and GPU on a single chip (APU), which positively affects the speed.
Shortly before entering the console to sell becomes known that PS4 games at work at a higher resolution than Xbox One, which in theory should allow the console from Sony give more " beautiful " image, but in fact those games that were available before the sales, the difference if it's noticeable that very small. The main advantage of the new consoles is called a reduction in the quality of graphics between PC and consoles, a console between the same if and compete, then a few years later when the developers thoroughly sorted out with the intricacies of creating a platform-specific code.
The cost of the games will be between $ 0.99 to $ 60 (within the U.S.), these figures are officially announced by the representative of Sony, and 55-60 £ for England. But in general, analysts expect revenue growth from one game to the level of $ 80-90 per user, as will be used very actively dissemination practices DLC for a fee. The cost for the console exclusive games that will go on sale the day of the sales PlayStation 4 : Killzone: Shadow Fall, Driveclub, Knack and InFamous Second Son, will be $ 59.99. First game for the PS4, which can be pre-ordered through the PSN, are available October 16, 2013. It is known that Sony is working with major publishers to develop attractive offers for users, with Electronic Arts in particular. Already in November 2013 for holders of PS4 and PS Plus subscription will be presented the first free mobile games for the new platform.
The day before the start of sales of PlayStation 4, Sony announced a new game that will be available for the new console :
- TowerFall Ascension;
- Released the game Infamous: Second Son: March 21, 2014 ;
- new game series Uncharted, developed by studio Naughty Dog;
- beta version of the game Destiny will be available initially only on consoles PS3 and PS4.
In 2014, Sony promises the emergence of some 100 new games for the PlayStation 4.
PS4 and Xbox One are based on a hybrid processing device from AMD, combines CPU, graphics chip, memory controller and video decoder. Console dubbed as " conventional computers " because traditional hardware stuffing, but ultimately it is a plus - much easier for developers to work with the usual X86- 64 architecture, and not unique (like the Cell processor in the PS3). However, now cannot support backward compatibility - for a new generation of consoles old games will not run (except through the "cloud" services).
GPUs both consoles besides graphics are also involved and calculating physics objects. Although Sony in this regard a slight advantage : more powerful accelerator, plus declared tessellation support and a special system of shaders PlayStation Shader Language, whose ability in something even beyond DX11 and OpenGL 4.
Among other details: PS4 in there is also a secondary processor is responsible for a variety of support services, network data transfer and social services. It works in the background while playing games, and even when the console is turned off. In turn, Xbox One can go into sleep mode without turning off the game and just as quickly " wake " on demand.
Different attitudes and companies to market "small" games from independent developers. PlayStation 4 will be a convenient platform for indie projects for that purpose, PSN has a special section, and independent developers will be able to publish their projects. On Xbox One all a little differently - the creators of low-budget games will conclude publishing agreement with Microsoft and its partners, the division games in a digital store for indie and will not usually all in one heap.
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