In an article titled Previous HIV testing Among Adults and Adolescents newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection the patterns of HIV testing are explored. According to the article, understanding previous testing pattern of HIV in individuals who have recently been diagnosed with the HIV virus can significantly help in the formulation and designing of new HIV testing strategies. These new strategies will help to reduce the time between HIV infection and diagnosis.
The article presents data from a study conducted by CDC in 2006-2009 that sought to determine whether individuals diagnosed with HIV had ever undergone a negative test before and also to calculate the time between the most recent negative tests to the most recent HIV diagnosis. This particular analysis found that many of the individuals diagnosed with HIV infection had never actually been tested previously. The implication of this is that people who are generally unaware of their HIV status cannot actually take any precaution measures to reduce their risk for transmission. Therefore, according to the article, there is need for enhanced efforts to increase the overall HIV testing among populations where the virus is prevalent so as to increase early detection.
This research presented in the article uses the Model for Change for Evidence Based Practice as a useful guide for its investigation, conducted in 2002-2006 on the patterns of HIV testing in individuals across various age groups. This model is based on research and theoretical literature that is related to evidence based practice, utilization of research materials and finally the change theory. The model supports changes that are evidence based from quantitative and qualitative data, contextual evidence and clinical expertise. The six principles or phases of the Evidence Based model guided the establishment of change strategies to increase HIV detection in populations.
One particular principle that was very significant was the assessment of the need for change in the practice of HIV detection. It was established that there was indeed a deficiency or a problem in the current HIV detection patterns and a change was therefore paramount. By using another principle of the Model for Change to Evidenced Based practice which actually involves establishing a link between the problem or the deficiency with interventions and outcomes; it was found that enhanced efforts aimed at increasing HIV testing among populations could actually help to reduce the time before infection and diagnosis and also help people help to take precaution measures.
There is indeed a very great value in basing research on established theories and models rather than starting from scratch. The theoretical model or framework connects the researcher to the knowledge that is already in existence. Theories essentially act as a guide to the research process, forms part of the research question, aids the overall research design and also plays an active role in the interpretation or analysis of the report. The research discussed above is testament to this fact.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Previous HIV testing Among Adults and Adolescents newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(24), 441-445.
Houser, J. (2008) Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.