The human reproductive system can be affected by pathogens like any other organs. An example of a bacterium is Neiserria Gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhea in both males and females. The disease can be treated through normal antibiotics. This presentation will highlight the human reproductive system of both sexes; how gonorrhea is caused, diagnosed, and treated; and the short and long term effects of the disease.
Male Reproductive System
It is grouped into two: external and internal organs. Internal organs include the penis, scrotum, epididymis, and testes. The penis engages in sexual intercourse, the scrotum is the outer skin covering the testes, the testes manufactures sperms, and epididymis matures the manufactured sperm.
Alternatively, the internal organs include the Vas Deferens that Convey mature sperms to urethra, Ejaculatory ducts that empty substances into urethra, Urethra, which expels urine or semen during sexual intercourse, seminal vesicles that produce fructose, which nourishes sperms giving them energy to move, prostate gland that contribute the extra fluid in ejaculation, and nourishing sperm, and the Bulbourethral glands, which produces a clear slippery fluid that neutralizes urethra that had become acidic due to urine.
Female Reproductive System
The external parts include: Labia Majora which are large lips containing sweat and oil glands. In adults, they are covered with hair; Labia Minora which are small lips after the Majora covering openings to vagina and urethra; Bartholin’s glands located next to vaginal opening and secrete mucus; and the Clitoris, which is a product of the meeting point of labia minora. It is Sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
Similarly, the internal organs include: Vagina, which is a channel joining the cervix and also called the birth canal; the Uterus (Womb) containing the cervix and corpus which holds the baby; Ovaries that are at either side of the uterus and are responsible for generation of hormones and eggs; and Fallopian Tubes, which are narrow channels where eggs travel to the uterus. Sperms also meet the eggs in this place.
Causes and Transmission of Gonorrhea
It is commonly referred to as ‘The Clap’ and is caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoea. The bacterium is spread is through (Kollar & Shmaefsky, 2005):
- Sexual transmission through oral, vaginal, and anal practices
- Sexual abuse of children resulting in genital, mouth, or rectum infections
- Touching infected secretions, or washing clothes of infected person.
Symptoms in Humans
In majority of men symptoms appear after 2-7 days. Therefore, the symptoms are: cream, green, or yellow penile discharge; burning sensation during urination; and pain in testicles However, in women incubation period is long with majority not experiencing any symptoms. Women symptoms if any are: pain during intercourse, vulva irritation, bleeding between periods, bloody or colored discharge, lower abdominal pain, and rectal infections. Alternatively, rectal infection symptoms are (Kollar & Shmaefsky, 2005): itching, constipation, bleeding in rectum, bloody stool, and pus-like discharge.
Treatment & Diagnosis
The disease can be diagnosed through, urine test, swab test, and internal examinations for women. However, early treatment is effective with a numerous ranges of antibiotics. Early treatment was with penicillin but with increasing drug resistance, new medicines have emerged. The latest antibiotics are: Cipro XR, Tequin, and Levaquin with a single dose of 500mg, 400mg, and 500mg respectively (STD online).
Long and short term effects of gonorrhea on the reproductive system
The short term effects of gonorrhea on reproductive organs are: soreness and itchiness of both vulva and penis; and pain in urethra during urination for men. The long term complication can be: Inflammation of epididymitis, prostate gland, and urethral channel in men; sterility in males from inflamed testicles; destruction of the womb in females leading to infertility; ectopic pregnancy in females; pelvic inflammatory disease in females; and blockage of fallopian tube in females.
Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that affects the reproductive system of both male and females. In males, the incubation is less than 10 days while in females it can pass undetected. However, despite its severity on the reproduction system, it can be treated with normal antibiotics. Diagnosis is through swab tests, internal organ examinations, and urine tests. Current treatment is through using antibiotics such as Cipro XR, Tequin, and Levaquin.
Kollar, L., & Shmaefsky, B.R. (2005). Gonorrhea. New York: InfoBase Publishing.
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