- Definition of Narrative and Expository Texts
Narrative texts refer to materials that are structured according to events. They include shared accounts of personal experiences, traditional and familiar stories and all literary material that is a product of imagination. Expository texts on the other hand explain, describe and present information in a factual and logical manner. Unlike narrative texts that use a chronological order, expository texts use different text patterns like compare/contrast, cause/effect and question/answer among others (Jalongo, 2014).
- Definition of Narrative and Expository Texts in the Context of CCLS in ELA
The common core learning standards in English and language arts require students to study literature and read stories as well as complex texts that not only provide background knowledge but also facts in areas like social studies and science. The information above relates to the common core learning standards in English and language arts in that it enables students to not only read and understand but also evaluate and analyze argument and informational writing in addition to acquiring the skills requisite to crafting a strong and sufficiently supported argumentative writing on their own (Jalongo, 2014).
- Reading Narrative and Expository Texts Effectively
Effective reading of narrative and expository texts is dependent on certain actions. Effective reading entails reading at a certain speed and ensuring maximum comprehension of the text. In order to effectively read expository and narrative texts, it is important to first preview the text. This gives a general overview of the contents of the book. Previewing the text can be done by skimming or scanning. After previewing the text, the actual reading requires one to make notes or highlight key points from the text. Finally, one should reflect on what was read either by summarizing or through recall (Cummins & Quiroa, 2012).
- Basic Strategies and Concerns when Reading Narrative as Opposed to Expository Texts
- Basic strategies
The following basic strategies are important when reading narrative tests as opposed to expository tests. Firstly, it is important to set the purpose for the reading. Additionally, one needs to preview the text and activate any background knowledge on the topic of the text. Then, predict how the story in the text might progress and cross-check during the reading. Finally, one should relate the information provided in the text to the background knowledge (Jalongo, 2014).
- Concerns when reading narrative texts
Unlike when reading expository texts, some concerns are worth noting when reading narrative texts. Common core standards require the use of standard text-dependent questions to evaluate the comprehension of narrative texts. The concern is that this will kill the desire for reading because of the repetitive questions (Youngs & Serafini, 2011). There is also growing concern that the rote questioning burdens the ability of a narrative test to develop the reader’s empathy and capture imagination (Yopp & Yopp, 2012).
- Motivating and Engaging Students
Motivating and engaging students in class is the holy grail of teaching. It is important to structure the course and every class to enable the students to know that to expect before every lesson. Additionally, the teacher should offer learning experiences that make the students feel that it is possible for them to achieve success. Ensure that both the students and you (the teacher) get feedback on performance and foster connection and application of what the students learn to their lives. Finally, creating an environment for learning where the students feel supported helps students feel motivated and as such engages them in class (Yopp & Yopp, 2012).
- Materials and Technology to be Used
The materials important for instructing students include themed resources, presentation and activities, collection connections, primary source sets and lesson plans. Technology is also important for the instruction of students. In this regard, technologies like electronic grade books, learning games and digital portfolios will be important for student instruction.
- Skills And Strategies to be Taught
The skills to be taught include scanning, skimming and active reading. The strategies to be taught include previewing, contextualizing, outlining and summarizing, reflecting, evaluating and comparing and contrasting (Yopp & Yopp, 2012).
- Classroom Activities to Deepen Understanding of Narrative Texts
In order to deepen the understanding of narratives, classroom activities like retelling, visualizing and making connections of the information from the text with prior knowledge are important (Spörer, Brunstein & Kieschke, 2009).
- Classroom Activities to Deepen Understanding of Expository Texts
In order to deepen the understanding of narratives, classroom activities like making inferences synthesizing and summarizing are important.
- Provision of Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated instruction will be provided by using pre-tests to determine individual needs before the commencement of any topic, using activities that require the use of auditory, visual and kinesthetic learning, developing classroom activities that differ in terms of complexity and the degree of abstract thinking that is required acquiring a balance between student-selected and teacher assigned projects and conducting assessments in an ongoing and interactive manner (Bråten, Strømsø & Samuelstuen, 2008).
- Addressing the needs of ELL’s and SWD
In order to address the needs of ELL and SWD students, the teacher will use experiences from real life when discussing texts, offer visual support to complement learning, offer native language support for ELL students and for the visually challenged, the teacher will use tape recorders to play audio books.
- Assess the Student’s Understanding of the Differences between Narrative and Expository Texts
In order to assess the understanding of the differences between narrative and expository texts, the teacher will use written tests. The teacher will also ask the students to describe the features of both narrative and expository texts
- Conclusions and Reflections of the Lesson
Instructing on the different between narrative and expository texts cannot just be done using theoretical approaches, especially is the students are expected to comprehend adequately. In my experiences, incorporating practical illustrations goes a long way in ensuring that students can relate to the theoretical underpinnings of the lesson.
Lesson on How to Wash Hands Effectively
- Objectives of the lesson
The following are the objectives of the lesson
- The students will demonstrate proper hand washing techniques.
- The students will demonstrate knowledge on the indications for hand washing.
The following materials are required for the lesson.
- An Expository text: - Buckley, C. (2007). Show Jo how to wash your hands. Indianapolis, Ind.: Literary Architects.
- Spray bottle
- A sink with warm water
- Liquid soap
- Disposable paper napkins:
The teacher will explain the following indications for hand washing.
- After visiting the toilet.
- After playing with animals and toys.
- Before and after eating food.
The teacher will explain and demonstrate the following six steps to effective hand washing to the children.
- Wet your hands using water and apply soap generously.
- Rub the palms of your hands together until the soap lathers.
- Rub each palm of the hand over the back of your other hand. Repeat this on both hands.
- Rub between the fingers of your hand with the other hand. Repeat this on both hands.
- Rub your hands together using the fingers.
- Rub around your thumbs using the other hand. Repeat this for both hands.
- Rub your palms with your fingers in a circular motion.
- Rinse the hands generously with running water and dry them with a disposable towel or paper napkin.
- Accommodations for ELL’s and SWD
The following considerations will be made for ELL’s and SWD
- Use of instructional methods that are sensitive to the needs of ELL’s and SWD.
- Pair up ELL students together.
- Use experiences from real life when discussing texts.
- Offer visual support to complement learning.
One of the assessment strategies that will be used is observation. After the teacher demonstrates how to effectively wash one’s hands, the students will be required to replicate the knowledge taught in a practical hand washing experience. The teacher will observe to ensure that the students have mastered the information and can apply it correctly. The teacher will also administer a written test to assess the understanding of the indications for hand washing and other theoretical perspectives of the exercise.
Bråten,I., Strømsø, H., Samuelstuen,M., (2008). Are sophisticated students always better? The role of topic-specific personal epistemology in the understanding of multiple expository texts, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4): 814-840
Cummins, S. and Quiroa, R. E. (2012). Teaching for Writing Expository Responses to Narrative Texts. The Reading Teacher, 65: 381–386.
Jalongo, M. (2014). Early Childhood Language Arts (6th ed.). Pearson Education
Spörer,N., Brunstein, J., Kieschke, U. (2009). Improving students' reading comprehension skills: Effects of strategy instruction and reciprocal teaching, Learning and Instruction, 19(3): 272-286,
Yopp, R. H. and Yopp, H. K. (2012). Young Children's Limited and Narrow Exposure to Informational Text. The Reading Teacher, 65: 480–490.
Youngs, S. and Serafini, F. (2011). Comprehension Strategies for Reading Historical Fiction Picturebooks. The Reading Teacher, 65: 115–124.