The universe is a collection of different galaxies; stars and planets and earth is part of it. The earth is also one of the planets in the solar system comprising the sun and nine other planets. The central part of the solar system is the sun while the earth and other planets in the solar system revolve around it. The earth as a gigantic structure but in the actual sense, it is infinitesimal in comparison with the solar universe. The universe has many galaxies, and the Milky Way galaxy is one of that many galaxies in the universe. The name "Milky Way" is derived from the Latin word via lactea or a Greek word galaxia kyklos. The galaxy looks hazy when seen in the nighttime. The people used to think that the Milky Way galaxy was perhaps the only galaxy in the solar system, however, the Great Debate which took place in 1920 between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis who revealed that the universe contains other galaxies. To understand how big the universe is, it will interest one to note that the universe comprises hundreds of billions of galaxies (precisely about 125 billion galaxies as estimated by astronomers) and each galaxy comprises billions of stars. The sun is also one of the stars among the Milky Way galaxy, several times the size of the earth.
In addition, there are lots of antimatters in the center of the solar system. Antimatters are matters with basic particles having properties that make them look much like the particles of ordinary matter. Antimatters have similar mass as ordinary particles, but their electrical charges, electromagnetism/or color charges and various other properties are opposed to those of ordinary matters. Antimatters make themselves notable through the emission of gamma rays. That phenomenon happens when they come in to contact with matters and destroy them. It is predicted that the main reason behind the black hole is antimatter particles.
The Milky Way Galaxy
The Milky Way Galaxy belongs to a class of galaxies in the Universe known as the Local Group which consists of other galaxies. Besides the Milky Way, the two other largest galaxies in the group are the Andromeda Galaxy and the Triangulum Galaxy. The group also contains smaller or dwarf galaxies like the Magellanic Clouds. A local group is also a part of a larger group of galaxies known as Virgo Cluster.
The Milky Way has a diameter of between 100,000 and 120,000 light-years, and it consists of almost 400 billion stars. The stars here include the sun and planets in the solar system. The solar system is in the Milky Way galaxy including the earth. There are many other planets, comets, meteors and various other features in the Milky Way Galaxy. The center of the Milky Way Galaxy is about 27,000 light years away from the solar system ("Science World").An essential part of the galactic system is known as dark matter. That is the mass of the galaxy, in this case the Milky Way galaxy, and it is said not to emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation in contrast from the laws of Keplerian dynamics. The oldest known star in the Milky Way galaxy is said to have been formed just after the Big Bang, and it is about 13.6 billion years old ( "Milky Way.")
Emission of Radiation from the Center of the Galaxy
The center of the Milky Way galaxy is characterized by a strong radio source known as Sagittarius A* and it is said to be a very massive black hole. The denseness and massiveness of the black hole is a feature that distinguishes and characterizes it. Black holes are formed during the process of stellar evolution. According to scientific theories, the dense celestial body exists in the universe. It has a very strong gravitational field such that it can attract anything including electromagnetic radiation that comes near it. The black hole appears black and surrounded by a boundary known as the horizon. Light enters the black hole through the horizon but does not escape from it (“Milky Way.").
Appearance, Size and Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
The Milky Way galaxy can be observed at nighttime. It stretches across the sky in the form of a luminous band at around 30 degrees. Any star that naked eyes can capture from the earth surface must be in the Milky Way galaxy. However, this appearance is simply because of the distance of the stars from the earth surface. The distance makes it difficult to see the stars comprising the galaxy clearly with the unaided eye. The Milky Way galaxy is brightest at its center that is in the Sagittarius constellation and this form a band that divides the night sky into two equal hemispheres.
Three shapes of galaxies exist and these include the spiral, elliptical and irregular shapes. Some of these types or shapes of galaxies can contain older stars like the elliptical galaxies; some can contain younger stars and even old and young stars. The Milky Way is a barred spiral shaped galaxy. That is a massive structure when compared to the solar system. It has already been said that it contains about 400 billion stars. As a matter of fact, if the Milky Way is reduced to about 100 m in diameter, the solar system would be about the size of a grain of sand. Different data models and methods were used in estimating the sizes of the Milky Way. That gives rise to variant results. The Milky Way consisted of 5.8 x 10 11 numbers of solar masses that is obviously smaller than the Andromeda Galaxy.
Stars and Planets in the Milky Way Galaxy
Studies showed that the minimum number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy is about 100 billion and the maximum number is 400 billion. Andromeda galaxy, a neighboring galaxy to the Milky Way contains about a trillion stars, more than that of the Milky Way galaxy. Interstellar medium that is composed of a disk of gas and dust fills the space between the stars in the galaxy. Lots of stars are bound to the Milky Way galaxy and in the same way; lots of planets are bound to stars. It is indicated using both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations. Every star holds at least one planet in each star, in the Milky Way Galaxy. As per studies ' of the five-planet star system using the Kepler space observatory, the number of planets in the Milky Way galaxy was predicted to be between 100 and 400 billion. In a different study, it was discovered that there are about 17 billion planets of the same size as the earth in the galaxy. The Milky Way is characterized as exocomets, comets, and exoplanets and lot likewise it (“Milky Way."; Science World).
The Galactic Center has the greatest concentration of stars in the galaxy, and if one moves farther away from the center, the concentration of stars in the solar system decreases. However, there is no edge in the Milky Way galaxy in which one would not find the star even though the concentration decreases.The shape of the core region of the galaxy is that of a bar. However, the Galactic Center is surrounded by stars, dust and gases which are arranged in the arm structures of the logarithmic spiral. The center of the galaxy and the sun are almost 28,000 light years apart from each other. . That also shows how far the solar system is from the center of the galaxy. Of course, the extreme of the Milky Way galaxy is beyond reach of the unaided eye. The very massive black hole at the center of the galaxy is said to be heavier than the sun by about 4.1 to 4.5 million. Black hole is not a peculiar feature of the Milky Way. It is the fundamental feature of other galaxies in the universe and of course; it is often located at the center of these galaxies (“Milky Way.").
The attraction of a black hole is slow in most other galaxies, but this is not the case in the Milky Way galaxy. The attraction of the super-massive black hole in the Milky Way galaxy is very high, and that gives rise to the emission of rays and electromagnetic radiation. According to researches, some radiation emissions have been noticed in the Milky Way galaxy. Studies showed that these emissions stream from the galactic centers. Emissions like X-rays and Gamma rays have observed, so these are important studies that require careful consideration and attention (“Milky Way.").
Gamma Ray Emanating from the Galactic Center
Gamma Ray exhibits a high electromagnetic radiation. It is comparable to x-ray, however, it has a shorter wavelength than x-ray. Gamma ray has a long range and high penetrating power. They carry no charge and, therefore, are neither deflected by electric nor magnetic field. Researches pointed out hands to the fact that the Galactic Center emits the gamma rays. The center of the galaxy contains a dark matter that does not emit electromagnetic radiations. However, according to researchers it becomes evident that the gamma rays emit from this region ("Science World").
Two giant spherical bubbles of high-energy radiation were observed in the north and south corners of the Milky Way center. This observation was made with the aid of the data of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The bubbles extend to the Grus and to Virgo in the southern hemisphere on the night sky. Their diameter is about 25,000 light years.It is believed that the gamma rays coming out from the Galactic Center is being produced by the dark matter at the center of the galaxy. Based on independent research on gamma ray, a current study revealed that the Galactic Center is oozing out large amounts of gamma emissions. That is quite contrary to what is normally thought of gamma ray emission. It is predicted that the emission comes from the interaction of solar systems with two stars, isolated and rotating neutron stars, the remaining of exploding stars and also the particles hitting one another with interstellar gas. However, the study shows that an alternative source can also produce the rays other than the above mentioned ("Excessive Gamma Rays; "Science World").
Other Sources Contributing to the Output
The study on the emission of gamma ray from the Galactic Center involves scientists from NASA, Harvard and Stanford Universities. Scientists are of the opinion that the massive output can also be coming from other particles. Some scientists say that some other particles could be contributing to the output. The researchers have the opinion that the dark matter must be contributing to the emission of the rays. This conclusion is reached when all known sources of gamma rays have been removed yet the emission of the rays continues and remains unabated.
An astrophysicist who works at the Fermilab, Dan Hooper outlined that the signals they noticed cannot be accounted for by the currently proposed alternative. He pointed out that this is in accordance with the dark matter models prediction. The left over emission obtained after the extraction of already known sources of gamma ray must is a true evidence of the dark matter models. However, it is not yet due to give a conclusion of the study as more studies are still being conducted on this ("Science World").
According to researchers, researches are still needed to make a solid confirmation of the role played by dark matter in the production of excess gamma ray in the galaxy, despite the fact that the excess gamma emission is caused by the dark matters. Researchers also pointed out that other sources of gamma rays aside the dark matter could be unveiled in upcoming researches and hence more and more researches are still being carried out in this subject. (("Science World"))
Immense threat and danger on the earth
It is confirmed that the gamma rays, as well as other strange particles emanating from the galactic center, are bombarding the earth. Irvine professor Kevork Abazaijan and associate professor Manoj Kapling, both of the University of California Department of Physics and Astronomy, found out that more of these particles are bombarding the earth than one knows. The electromagnetic streams are causing havocs and dangers to the earth according to their discoveries. These electromagnetic radiations are believed to be caused b intensive radioactive decay and, therefore, could be causing great mutation on matters on the earth surface. They are also believed to be triggering an unbelievable energy cloud which is apparently causing danger on the earth. The astrophysicists involved in this study carefully went through the various data on related to the study compiled by NASA’s orbiting Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope between 2008 and 2012. They painstakingly researched on these data before coming up with a wonderful discovery. The researchers observed that the shape, spectrum and the rate of the gamma rays are in line with the already established theories relating to dark matter.
Threats and Dangers Facing the Earth
Besides the threats coming from the bombardment of gamma rays and other particles from the galactic center, the earth is faced with many other treats which should give some concerns. Just two years before the discoveries made by Kevork Abazaijan and Manoj Kapling, it was discovered that some mysterious emissions coming from the sun are causing mutation on matters and also influencing the rate of decay of substances on the earth surface. It is an amazing and indeed a thought-provoking discovery which shows how much earth is vulnerable.
Consequently, it was also discovered that there are some unknown forces coming from the center of the galaxy that now surrounds a greater part of our solar system. Scientists predicted that the solar system is moving into a huge and prospective danger of interstellar energy cloud whose origins are not known. It is estimated that people living on earth will soon venture into a period of great and dangerous intensity owing to the progressing solar fury. Lots of torrent forces are building up in the inner core of the sun beside the huge treats accumulating at the center of the galaxy. These forces are very strange, huge and are very capable of crushing the earth and the world of the living.
The most frustrating part of it all is that there is nothing in science and technology could do to control these menaces. The forces are beyond reach and are very capable of crushing the earth out. Researchers are of the opinion that its threats accumulating at the present time may or may not cause significant danger on the earth. However, no matter how it goes, there is obviously nothing can be done to control it. NASA, therefore, sounds warning to the world of the havoc and danger building up against the earth and the world of the living ( "Excessive Gamma Rays “; "What Are Colliding Galaxies?.").
The earth is a small member of this Milky Way Galaxy and among the billions of galaxies in our solar system. The galaxy is made up of about 400 billion stars. The earth is simply a speck of the dust when compared to the mass and size of the galaxy. Studies have shown that the dark matter at the center of the galaxy emits particles including gamma rays and other electromagnetic radiations which are affecting the climate. These particles cause mutation and changes in different scales. Researchers conducted by two professors of the University of Cambridge, Kevork Abazaijan and Manoj Kapling with already established data proves this to be true.
Obviously, nothing can be done with existing feeble technology to avert the menace that coming on the earth, however, a careful study is needed to understand these emissions and from where they are coming?. In short. The gamma rays come from the dark matter in the center of the solar system. This conclusion is arrived at having excluded other known causes of gamma ray emission. However, subsequent studies are still needed to validate this fact and to prove this to be true. Thus, scientists are still making more researches confirm it
"Milky Way.." N.p., Online Posting to Wikepedia. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way>.
"Diameter of the Milky Way." Trans. ArrayMicrosoft Encarta, Web. 9 Apr. 2014.
"Excessive Gamma Rays at Milky Way's Centre Hint at Dark Matter " N.p., Online Posting to Science World. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://blogs.voanews.com/science-world/2014/04/04/excessive-gamma-rays-at-milky-ways-center-hint-at-dark-matter/>.
"What Are Colliding Galaxies?.." N.p., Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://www.soyouwanna.com/colliding-galaxies-38087.html>.