“Breast cancer is classified by diverse schemata.” Explains; Ivan. &. Lakhmi. (2010) “every phase influence treatment reaction and prognosis. The breast cancer can be categorized in different stages by; pathology, receptor status, grade and the presence. The initial stage (stage 0) is a pre-malignant disease or marker. The second stage (stages 1-3) this are early cancer which is potentially curable. The last stage is called the advanced stage (stage 4) it is also called metastatic cancer. At this stage the cancer is incurable.” (Ivan. &. Lakhmi. 2010)
Ivan & Lakhimi (2010) further explains that “the initial symptom is characterized by a lump that feels unusual from the rest breast tissue. The lumps are usually found in lymph nodes which are located in the armpit can also indicate breast cancer.” They add that “the most common way of noticing of a breast cancer is the lump.” Ivan & Lakhimi (2010) continues to clarify that “sadly, when the lump is noticeable then the cancers have existed for years in the body. The earliest breast cancer is detected by the use of a mammogram.” To conclude they add that “Other indication of the breast cancer is changes in breast size, shape, nipple inversion and skin dimpling.”
The framework of the breast cancer awareness outlined intends to capture and compliment the eclectic, multi-dimensional and challenging role of nurses in informative action on creating awareness on breast cancer. The key purpose is to raise awareness of cancer among women congregants and to show them the important preventative measures. Holding an all participating atmosphere for such an enlightening crusade is essential so that these women can practice frequent self-breast examination, cancer screening and seek early intervention. The most important goal of the communication strategy is to raise the awareness. There are a number of ways in which communal awareness can be done in a church setting these includes; use of projector and power point, distributing articles and issuance brochures on breast cancer and all that pertains to it.
Person to person interaction is another strategy that can be decided. (Berry, 2007) Indicates that “the method is goal directed, situation appropriate, inter-related and under individuals control.” Communication skills are means of support to any interaction be it personal, social, professional or otherwise. However, a structure must be set in order to optimize the chances of effective interaction. A framework that will help on maximizing on the little time set for the campaign, a result oriented perspective schedule for this worthwhile mission. This is better analyzed in the framework for effective breast cancer awareness strategy.
Framework for effective breast cancer awareness campaign strategy
Women congregants can be educated about breast cancer on several ways. Involving them in group discussion, this will enhance active participation and overall contribution on awareness through experience, witness and societal believes. That way one is able to evaluate the degree of breast cancer awareness and will be able to identify the hitches. In such a position an assistant health care, a nurse or a trained facilitator will be required. It is upon the nurse to decide on the most appropriate interventions. “The interventions may take psychological form or physical form; it depends on the overall purpose of interaction for example carrying out a physical observation, reassuring an anxious woman using communication skills and such” (Hunt & Wainwright, 1994).
Foremost, it is essential to interact with the congregants through all ranges of the communication skills they have garnered in the nursing profession. This will affirm the congregants on the knowledge and the will of the health care or nurse to assist both physically and psychologically. This reassures the vulnerable among the women.
According to (French, 1995) “ taking Breast cancer communication strategy as a multi-based communication strategy aimed at enlightening women regarding breast cancer, testing, diagnosing and assist women in making knowledgeable decision about breast cancer.” The target group being women in church; this means that women who attend church service. This is because breast cancer mainly affects women, though it most prevalent among those over 40 years. Indeed, many older women attend church than younger ones. Thus, carrying out a breast cancer campaign in church will reach high population of women.
Putting the framework into practice
In reference to (Harrison & Hart, 2005) “ a fundamental part of nurse’s responsibility in breast cancer battle is preliminary contact, conveying a sense of warmth and putting the audience at relieve by using communication skills i.e. questioning, listening, summarizing and reflecting.” It is important to gather much information ranging from all types of experiences and stereotypes about breast cancer. Gather past medical and psychiatric history that may prop up from those affected.
He further explains that “one on one interaction has the potential to instill confidence and a sense of safety.” Women in church can be educated about breast cancer by being visited by nurses who will give health promotion message. The experts will provide advice and assist groups of women on visiting occasions. Arrangements can as well be made by the experts to speak to women individually and in confidence.
The continuing use of effectual communication skills is fragile and at time exigent stage, the main aim is inform and highlight subsequent nursing intervention. As the breast cancer campaign unfolds, it is important to assess the impact of the used skills. This is to evaluate whether they got the right information about the breast cancer, and if the degree of impact is consequential.
“The application of this information is the essence of professionalism in nursing. Studies on learning have indicated that informational support given by others is highly valuable to those coping with chronic diseases” (Harrison & Hart, 2005). Informational support entails getting information from other people concerning various issues; its benefits include sharing pertinent information and understanding how to obtain what one requires.
The informational support will entail sharing information about an individual’s experiences with breast cancer, so that other women understand what to expect in case she suffers from it. Other information obtained from other medium like the doctors, the internet and television can as well be shared. More so, constructivist concept asserts that, a lot of learning is through social and occurs among “communities of practice” in which people interrelate and learn from each other. A church as a community of practice as well offers a good opening for breast cancer victims to observe and emulate the behavior of successful cancer survivors.
An example in practice
An upbeat campaign can transform not only the congregants’ awareness of breast cancer, but its associations. In the instance where individuals are blighted with embarrassment and stigma, communication skills are used in the campaign metamorphosed into a faction that embodies thoughts of female solidarity, optimism and survivorship. To put to the right context in the practicing of communication skills framework in fighting breast cancer, there are some paradigm on how a working knowledge on breast cancer would contribute positively and therapeutically to the affected persons. One on one communication is integral to breast cancer nursing practice and can be therapeutic on its own. This way the context of information is delivered to the right receiver boldly and clearly. Certainly, printed information i.e. use of leaflets has its place in fighting breast cancer as a means to reinforce the word of mouth. Providing significant information to the women congregants is a goal directed activity.
There is a need to be comprehensible on what the whole mission hopes to accomplish as an outcome of effort put into the campaign. “Using a wide range of communication skills i.e. listening, reflecting and questioning is crucial,” (Hunt & Wainwright, 1994). “Asking open questions will allow obtaining information, indicating concern and facilitating personal expression. For instance “give me an idea on what you understand concerning breast cancer?”” “Through listening and reflection one can assess the emotional impact of a prolonged condition. i.e. “I sense that you finding it hard to give a response.” Then remain silence to give a .chance for response. This will give a chance for certain feedback.” (Hunt & Wainwright, 1994)
On reflecting about the interaction it is important for one to ask what the future of my nursing career is. What did I achieve in the whole mission of fighting breast cancer? What was the rationale in the communication skills as I used? And in future what changes can be done to optimize on the likelihood of successful campaign in future. Frequent public talks are major way of creating campaigns about breast cancer. This can be done by survivors of cancer giving weekly or monthly talks to the women in church.
Every week, or month a guest speaker can be invited to the church to address women gathering. The topic to be addressed can include cancer diagnosis, treatment options, coping strategies just but to mention a few. It is appropriate to acknowledge the fact that breast cancer is one of the 200 different forms of cancer. It is branded a woman’s disease though it affects both genders. Every year, about 200,000 women in the whole world are diagnosed with the breast cancer. Cancer develops when there is uncontrollable cells division. This occurs when the cells keep dividing constantly even when new cells are not needed in the body. Transformations from the normal to cancerous cells necessitate gene alterations. Distorted genes and uncontrolled increase leads to tumors which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors do not spread but cause damage to the tissues around it. However, malignant tumors attack, damage, and wipe out nearby tissues and they can spread.
Nurses’ role in Breast Cancer Edification
According to (Hunt & Wainwright, 1994) “all nurses have an ethical, professional, and moral accountability to disseminate their skills and knowledge to peers, professionals and colleagues.” It is an important thing that the nurse should educate the congregants on regular medical checks and mammograms to become aware of any sign of breast cancer in advance
“Health communication skills are a decisive aspect in every stage of breast cancer. Planned health communication campaigns for breast cancer education that employ multiple ways of communication can be applied. This will successfully pass relevant information concerning breast cancer risks to susceptible populations. It will also promote adoption of better health promoting behaviors, regular exercise, healthy eating, weight management, lowering alcohol intake and reducing contact with common carcinogens” (Hunt & Wainwright, 1994).
Cultural background is another major aspect to consider. Culture entails a significant part of our lives; it involves values, symbols, history, language, religion and institutions that are shared within a community. Culture influences how people view and respond to health issues and messages, and it interrelated in health behaviors and approaches. Usually, people are influenced by culture in several ways. Believes and taboos guide people way of internalizing things. This communication strategy should put into account the culture of women in church. The audience, comprised of women who shared same religious beliefs and language and thus the type of message created was intended for this group of women. The church attendants are people with numerous commonalities. They share the same believes and understand one another too well. Pink labeled t-shirt can be worn to show solidarity, a symbol of the fight against the breast cancer. A proposal to have a day set a site as a breast cancer day will help us reaffirm our position and make communication more easy and open. This will also create the opportune time to spread out even the education materials. The mob influence among the women congregants can easily be use to offer reduced price mammogram
Communication campaigns have to be formulated and executed using convincing communication strategies founded on local attitudes, cultural as well as economic factors and need to include an examination of the health beliefs, orientations and values of the targeted audience. The communication strategy chosen for promoting breast cancer information was based on community channels because they offer more support than the media alone, provide opportunity to share experiences and reach a bigger audience.
Regular public talks are major way of creating campaigns about breast cancer. This can be done by survivors of cancer giving weekly or monthly talks to the women in church. Every week, or month a guest speaker can be invited to the church to address women gathering. The topic to be addressed can include cancer diagnosis, treatment options, coping strategies just but to mention a few.
There are numerous women diagnosed with breast cancer on a daily basis but they typically do not know much about its formation and the various ways of treatment. Breast cancer is a lethal disease that should not be overlooked; if left untreated breast cancer can spread further to other organs and ultimately kill. One might not be having the breast cancer, however, chances of that one knows or will know somebody who has it is alarming. It is necessary that people realize how breast cancer forms, distinguish it stages, and be familiar with how breast cancer is got and how one can avert it. It is important to understand all of the methods of treating the breast cancer and preventing it from revisiting. It is important give public lecture on breast cancer.
This form of cancer is the leading form of cancer in most women in the mid 40s. There is no known cure of breast cancer but knowledge of the disease in its early stages can help to save many lives. In the majority of the women, the breasts are visible symbol of femininity. They are focal point of fashion, sexuality and proud basis of nurturing new life.
A campaign against breast cancer has been intensified with time. Both the government and the Non-governmental Organization have joined this battle in a common goal of creating awareness. The society is becoming more developed day by day and the lifestyle changing with this progression. Some of the risk factors associated with breast cancer include age, sex economic status, race and lack of breastfeeding or childbearing. A research carried out by American Institute for cancer in conjunction with world cancer Research Fund found out that breast cancer is more of a behavior related disease.
The report concluded that women can reduce their risk by being physically active, checking their weight, reducing alcohol intake and breastfeeding their babies (National Cancer Institute, 2009). Technological advancement leading to life style changes, behavior related diseases like Cancer have become a menace to the health care sector hence need for appropriate strategies to avert the situation.
Nurses have the ability to move from ward to another, community to hospital and sector to sector have made them suitable for this initiative. They are equipped with generically handy set of interpersonal and medical skills to meet the needs of large groups of people. The variety of psychological and physical skills and intervention from nurses has made the whole process a success. A breast invasion by a malignant disease is bound to powerfully draw emotions. Breast is an organ that everybody is familiar with. The most prominent message from the breast cancers movement states that the best prevention of the disease is early detection. Many women are missed diagnosed for lack of good communication skills.