A variable is a quality or a quantity that differs across various situations and people. Variable have different types of classifications like quantitative variable, categorical variable, dependent variable, and independent variables. Independent variables often known as X, is termed as the variable in a statistical relation between two variables. That is seen to be the cause of other variable. However, dependent variables (also known as Y) are variables that that is seen to be an effect. A good example is that of a statistical relationship that determines whether or not an unhappy or miserable person is in need of psychotherapy. In the example, the symptoms reflected are the independent variable while psychotherapy is dependent variable.
A confounding variable is an inessential variable that fluctuates on average across different of level or conditions of the independent variable. In this study, the potential confound is the IQ. Results of this study case show that the participants who had positive mood condition have higher IQs in comparison to participants with negative moods condition. However, since confounding variable tend to confuse it is not clearly right to conclude the moods contributed to the higher score maybe it was the Peoples IQ levels.
Both the personalized message and the content of the message from a server accounted for the results of increased tips percentage from 17% to 20%. The increased tip allowance was attributed by the fact that the customer felt the need to reciprocate the good deed of the waiter. The customer sees it like the waiter had to spend a bit of her time to writing a message, and good deeds are reciprocated by good deeds (Rind & Bordia, 1995). The study was also conducted with a stack of index cards; half of the cards were indicated “message” while the other half was indicated “no message”. The cards were shuffled such that they can be distributed randomly. If the server chose an index card with a “message” indicated at the back, the server wrote a message at the pack of the check regarding an upcoming dinner event. However, if the server picked a card with” no message” they did not write any tips at the back of the check (Rind & Bordia, 1995).
The researcher’s results showed that there was an increased tip in people who received check with the message at the back that those that did not receive anything at the back. Random assignment was essential in the research so at to avoid the waiter being biased. An additional strategy that can be applicable in the random assignment is to determine and record the information collected from a random process (Rind & Bordia, 1995).
Internal validity is the way conduct supports the conclusion that independent variable cause observed changes independent variable. The possible threats to internal validity that may have arisen from a change in servers behaviors is the client noticing the varying different facial expression when they server were delivering their checks to them. So as to this occurrence the server were instructed to avoid facial contact and to leave immediately.
External validity is an issue being confronted. As rule study cases are higher in external validity when the participants and the situation studies are similar to those, the researcher wants to generalize. A young female adult limit the authors accomplice in that person tend to believe young females tend to receive more tips from the customers in compare to male or older women. The conducting of the study in a private country club limits the author’s accomplice. In that people who attend these private clubs are general wealthy people and tend to leave tips as compared to average people who attend normal clubs. The author’s idea of a meal in buffer form additionally limits the accomplice since average or middle-class people are unable to attend such places. These places are meant only for the wealthy in our communities. These people have extra fund for tipping the server
Rind, B., & Bordia, P. (1995). Effect of server’s “Thank you” and personalization on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25,745-75 1.