The topic on this chapter is Intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this topic, a number of key issues were discussed. These include;
The definition of intellectual disabilities according to the AAIDD, which defines intellectual disabilities to include significant deficiencies in intellectual abilities of a child, as well as limitations in adaptive behavior that is expressed in the social, conceptual and practical skills.
The chapter discusses the prevalence rates of this disability and places conservative figures at close to 0.6 million students receiving the services of IDEA. Approximately 10% of all students with disabilities between 6-21 years are also known to have intellectual disabilities.
The characteristics of students with disabilities are also broadly discussed in this chapter. Specifically, the chapter discusses the intellectual, adaptive skills and self regulatory characteristics of this disability. The academic, speech and language, as well as the physical and motivational characteristics are also discussed in this chapter.
In this chapter, we also discussed the classification of people with intellectual disabilities, the causes of this form of disability as well as the importance of the intervention services that are available to children suffering from this form of disability.
Lastly, the chapter discusses the five skills areas that are important in programs for elementary age children with this disability. These included the Motor development skills, Self-help skills, Social skills, Communication skills and Academic skills. The four educational goals for adolescents with this form of disability was also a major focus of this chapter.
Application of this chapter content
The knowledge gathered from this chapter will be applicable in a classroom set up in ensuring that all students’ needs are met. For instance, the teacher will be able to design programs that will ensure that the students with slow learning abilities are not left behind, and that there are adequate interventions to ensure that all students reach their fullest potential
The chapter opens by identifying the areas that are of functional challenge to children with autism spectrum disorders. These include language, interpersonal skills, emotional or affective behavior as well as intellectual functioning.
The chapter also illustrates the prevalence rates and places the figures at least 0.0005% to about 0.0039% of the total population. It can however be higher at some cases.
The characteristics of children with autism is also another major area of focus for this chapter and they are listed to include; unresponsiveness to physical contact and extreme difficulties in relating to people; impaired or even delayed language skills with about 50% not developing speech skills at all; resistance to change, and especially changes in routine as well as reduced level of intellectual potency.
The chapter also discusses the two theories that explain the causes of autism which are the biological and the psychoanalytic theories. Lastly, the chapter explains the approaches to the treatment of this disease at the various levels.
Application of this chapter
In a classroom set up, this knowledge is essential in assisting the teacher to understand and detect cases of autism and also find means of dealing with such cases. This is of course with reference to the intervention measures that can be employed to ensure a smooth learning for the students that have this form of disability
This chapter is about multiple and severe disabilities. The chapter opens with various attempts to define multiple and severe disabilities and its agreed that such a definition may not be entirely probable. Just like the other chapters, the prevalence rate and characteristics of people with multiple and severe disabilities are also discussed.
As the chapter progresses, three types of educational assessments for affected students, the features of effective services and supports for affected children, the features that characterize successful inclusive education for students with severe and multiple disabilities as well as the bioethical dilemmas that affect the victims of multiple and severe disabilities and their families are also discussed
In a classroom set up, the knowledge derived from this chapter would be very helpful in assisting the teacher to understand how best to design programs that are all inclusive so as to also take care of the needs of those with multiple disabilities. At the same time, the teacher will be more informed on the problems that the affected students face and this will assist in the design of the classroom in such a way that all students are able to access the teachers’ services without unnecessary difficulties.
Hardman,M.L. Drew J.C. & Egan M.W. (2011) Human Exceptionality: School, Community, and Family Wadsworth, Cengage learning