Workplace deviance defined as the “voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and in so doing threatens the wellbeing of an organization, its members, or both” . The types of workplace deviance include production deviance, property deviance, political deviance, and personal aggression (Robinson and Bennett; cited in Rogojan). Accordingly, production deviance was described as “behaviors that violate the formally proscribed norms delineating the minimal quality and quantity of work to be accomplished” . The examples for production deviance include absenteeism, tardiness, leaving early, excessive breaks, wasting office resources, among others.
Property deviance, on the other hand, means the use of company resources for personal interests without due authority sought or given by the organization. The examples of acts which are considered within this category are: destruction of company assets; stealing, disclosing confidential company information to external parties, to name a few. These actions or behavior are detrimental to the organization is viewed as a violation of company rules and policies.
Political deviance is explicitly defined as “the behavior as engagement in social interaction that puts other individuals at a personal or political disadvantage” . Actions explaining political deviance include exhibiting favoritism, engaging in relationships within the work setting that have been expressly indicated as not allowed, incivility, gossiping on co-workers or stakeholders.
Finally, personal aggression is also a type of workplace deviance means “behaving in an aggressive or hostile manner towards other individuals” . From among the actions that could be included within this type are: physical assaults, sexual or verbal abuse, and harassment of co-workers, stealing or destruction of properties of colleagues, among others.
Robinson, S.L. and R.J. Bennett. "“A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study." Academy of Management Journal (1995): Vol. 38, No. 2, 555-572.
Rogojan, Paul-Titus. "Deviant Workplace Behavior in Organizations: Antecedents, Influences, and Remedies." August 2009. Internationale Betriebswirtschaft. 17 February 2013