The acquired immune deficiency syndrome better known as AIDS is a viral disease. Research analysis indicates that, the disease is mainly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus attacks the immune system and ensures that it weakens the site. After the attack, the infected person is made vulnerable to diseases and other infections. The origin of the disease is said to have come from viruses initially infecting African primates. The transmission of the virus to the species is what led to the outbreak of the disease in humans (Paul &Beatrice 2011). A single SIV (simian immune deficiency virus) cross-transmission from chimpanzees to man in Cameroon is thought to be the primary source of the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. It is believed that AIDS was in the primates before the emergence of the HIV virus in humans. The first appearance of the virus was found in 1981 when the number of homosexuals dying of unusual infection increased (CDC 1981). HIV type one as we know it today is considered to be the retrovirus that causes the epidermal disease AIDS (Popovic et al. 1984). There are two types of the virus, the HIV-one and the HIV-two. The HIV-one is considered to be more widespread unlike the HIV-two that is confined to western Africa and some parts of northern Sahara in Africa (Ramjee & Wand 2012). The HIV virus is transmitted from one individual to the other through various means. It is possible through the contact or exchange of fluid on blood, semen, rectal fluids and breast milk from an infected person. The transmission through blood is only possible through injection or transfusion of infected blood. Having intercourse with an infected person is the primary cause of contracting the infection. A person having other sexually transmitted diseases is at a higher risk of contracting the human immune deficiency virus. During childbirth, the HIV virus can be transferred from the mother to child through the mixing of blood. In the case of a mother to baby, however, if can be avoided if a medical professional takes care of the birth process. Oral sex and kissing have also been documented as the other way of contracting the virus. Almost 85% of adults with the HIV virus have acquired it through mucosal surfaces the making AIDS to be a primarily sexually transmitted disease (Hladik and McElrath 2008). The United States being among the first industrialized countries to discover ADIS in it borders it is still most affect by the epidemic. In the United States, about 75% of new cases of the HIV virus are reported in men (Schneider et al. 2006). The rate of infections in heterosexual women in the United States is on a steady by disturbing increase. The amount of transmission from mother to child is nearly being eradicated through the constant screening of parents and provision of antiretroviral care to pregnant. In Africa on a research done on people between 15-45 years revealed that 4.7% of the population lives with HIV and AIDS (WHO 2013). The survey further showed that the western pacific regions of Australia and New Zealand have the lowest number of infected persons. A ballpark figure of persons living with HIV and AIDS is at 30 million all over the world with 1.1 million of this population being in America. A large infected population puts everyone at risk. Adults and children as well are at danger of contracting the virus. For unborn babies, it will be upon their mother to know their status so as to prevent transmission at birth or during pregnancy. AIDS being a sexually transmitted disease; people with multiple sex partners, people living with sexually transmitted infections (STI) and those who live in poverty will be most vulnerable to contracting the virus. Having multiple sex partners’ means you are putting yourself in the way of getting infected. It is highly possible to get infected since the virus is transmitted sexually. It is unwise to change partners since you might end up getting an infected partner. A person living with an STI is also vulnerable to infection due to reduced immunity in the body. Persons living in poverty are susceptible to the virus because of lack of finance to access proper medical care. The lack of appropriate medical equipment too might lead to instances of sharing needles hence increasing the chances of getting the virus through sharing of needles with an infected person. The question arises as to what can be done so as to avoid such a vicious disease. Up to date a definite cure for AIDS has not been found. Immediately after it emergence scientists have been working round the clock to find either a cure or vaccine but none has been found yet. Several preventive measures have been put forward so far. Since the disease is sexually transmitted, the use of condoms is advice to prevent contraction during intercourse. Abstinence from sex and maintaining one sex partner is also used a preventive measure. No treatment has been found, but the development of the ARVs (anti-retroviral drugs) which help to slow down the growth of the virus in the body has proved helpful. To conclude, I chose to write about AIDS because ifs a global pandemic and affects humanity. It is a disease that affects all classes and ages of people. Research is being done to find a cure and also a vaccine to the disease. I think awareness campaigns should be put up so as to inform the public of the illness and its preventive measures. The government should also provide funding to aid in the research for its cure.
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