Animal testing also called animal research or animal experimentation refers to utilization of non-human animals in the experiments. Roughly, twenty million animals are actually killed or experimented on annually. Three fourths of these animals are experimented or killed for either medical purposes or testing various products. Animal testing is conducted in the medical schools, universities, defense establishments, pharmaceutical companies, and commercial facilities, which provide animal testing services to the industry. It involves pure research like developmental biology, behavioral studies, genetics, as well as the applied research like xenotransplantation, biomedical research, drug testing, and toxicology tests that include cosmetics testing. In addition, animals are used for breeding, education, and defense research. Therefore, the practice is actually regulated to different degrees in various countries.
It is estimated that about 8 million animals are used in the painful experiments. Reports indicate that at least 10% of the animals used in experiments do not get painkillers. The animal rights advocates are at the front line pressing the government agencies to enforce heavy restrictions on the animal research. Nevertheless, this growing painful experimentation on the animals’ criticism is in fact matched by a rising concern over threat restrictions on use of animals would cause to the scientific progress. Whether animal testing should be given, a chance to continue has become a public debate matter.
The supporters of animal use in experiments for example, the British Royal Society says that practically every medical achievement in 20th century depended on animals use in certain way. However, some animal rights and welfare organizations like BUAV and PETA question its legitimacy, arguing that this act is cruel and poorly regulated. In addition, their arguments are based on the fact that, it is a poor scientific practice, that the progress in medical aspects is being held back by the misleading animal models where a number of tests are outdated meaning that they cannot reliably predict the effects in animals. Furthermore, they argue that costs outweigh benefits, and that these animals possess an intrinsic right of not to be used for the experimentation.
Animal testing or experimentation might not affect ordinary people directly in each day, or appear to be an issue on the mind of everyone, yet actions that people do on daily basis can actually affect animal experimentation. This has been an ongoing battle and a worldwide issue for many decades. There are various reasons why organizations and people want animal experimentation changed. People of all religions and nations argue differently concerning this topic. The chief factor in making a decision about animal experimentation moral correctness is on the personal belief of a person. No matter a side that an individual takes on this, they feel that there are various things, which must be done to advantage their stance and the publicity of this burning topic.
PETA is a group that opposes animal testing. They argue, “Animals are not ours to experiment on, to eat, or use for entertainment.” This group claims that the animals used in these experiments are free roaming animals, like birds, frogs, ship and pigs, and are actually used since they are viewed by the public with less compassion because they are less cute. In addition, this group believes that a public that is better educated is key to the improvement of health of these animals and their safe. Another argument against animal experimentation is the numerous cases where the medicines that were passed by FDA that posed no threats to the animals caused side effects that were serious on humans.
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Coster, P. (2009). Animal testing. London: Wayland
Hester, R. E., & Harrison, R. M. (2006). Alternatives to animal testing. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.