The transformation of time and space has brought significant changes in the education level. Indeed, the new millennium has begun with a stronger commitment and dedication for the significantly advancement of higher education.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of globalisation and internationalisation on educational context while elaborating the consequences for curriculum design in local/global context. To further explore the theoretical implications, the concepts of globalisation and internationalisation has been taken into study. This has helped in the evaluation of the variety of impact of globalisation and internationalisation on the education and its curriculum along with the educationists in the local context. Additionally, the study has tend to focus highly on variety of dimensions including; working with cross-culture and cross-linguistic, understanding the identity and difference, English teaching in worldwide context, understanding and accepting diversity in terms of race and identity, the changes in the technology and the teaching methods and techniques in the modern era. The study has also focused on understanding the importance of change in the context while elaborating the ways through which internationalisation of curriculum could be made possible. In the end, the examination of the notion raised for the current and future teaching context has been evaluated.
Theoretical Implications of Globalisation and Internationalisation on Education Context
Since 1980, globalisation and internationalisation has become a rapidly growing concern for educational institutions all over the world. Globalisation has played an influential role all over the world as it touch aspects of everyday life. In order to learn about the theoretical implications of globalisation and internationalisation on education context it is essential to gain an understanding regarding the concepts of globalisation and internationalisation (Gardner, 2004).
Globalisation and Internationalisation
The term globalisation is often revealed by phases like ‘transformation of time and space’, ‘interconnectedness’ and ‘borderlessness’ (Ohmae, 1990; Robertson, 1992; Urry et al., 1998). Globalisation is not just a single phenomenon but is inferred from variety of phenomena as well as processes and outcomes that are multidimensional i.e. economic, cultural, political, technological, religions, ideological etc.). According to Cochrane and Pain (2002), the understanding of the term globalisation is quite controversial and challenging, making it a long, uneven and complicated process (Robertson, 1992).
According to Robertson (1992), the term globalisation is not only limited to practices of economic exchange but is more inclined towards the intensification of awareness level of the individuals towards the world as a whole. Similarly, Appadurai (1996) that globalisation is marked due to its prominent role in the social life of individuals across the globe. In simpler words, globalisation is associated with changes that are making its way into our emotions while influencing the thinking process about the daily life (Cohen and Kennedy, 2000).
Like globalisation, internationalisation is also multidimensional and is associated with diversity in higher education. The term internationalisation is often referred by some countries ‘as a mean to recruit overseas students’ while other countries associate ‘mobility’ with internationalisation (Nilsson, 2003).
The term internationalisation is often associated with globalisation, however many scholars have suggested that both the terms are closely related but are quite different in nature. For instance, Van Damme (1999) reflected that globalisation is forceful change due to the global competition, whereas internationalisation is the aggregate of all the activities that can help expand the reach over the national borders. To simply understand the concept of internationalisation of higher education in relation to globalisation, the definition provided by Knight (1997) must be taken into consideration. According to Knight, globalisation is the flow of technology, values, people etc across borders that significantly impact each country’s culture, priorities and traditions to great extent. On the other hand, internationalisation of higher education is the way a country responds to the impact of globalisation while respecting the factors and individuality of the nation (Singh, 2005).
Impact of Globalisation and Internationalisation on Education and Curriculum
Globalisation and internationalisation has significantly impacted the education system across the globe. Globalisation has consistently managed to shift the educational system from mono-cultural approach to multi-cultural approach and has eventually brought changes in the curriculum as well as attendance practices (Banks, 2011). Meeting the learning needs of young individuals and adults have become an important part of education system. For the accomplishment of such goals, the educational institutions emphasises upon provision of equal access to appropriate learning. Furthermore, the globalisation and internationalisation have created structural imbalances in the education. This significantly reduces the youth’s ability from the rural areas to take advantage of employment opportunities (Rizvi, 2009).
The rapid increase in the globalisation and internationalisation has resulted in the death of traditional curriculum due to which curriculum planning and implementation is constantly required to meet the demands of human civilisation. Thus, the impact of both the factors has become a major mission of all schools across the globe. Globalisation has also influenced in the change of curriculum to promote the higher order and to facilitate the youth and adults to think divergently (Reid and Sriprakash, 2012).
In the era of globalisation, the educational institutions have adopted the required skills and competencies needed for survival through the change in curriculum and the change in teaching methods (Banks, 2011). The globalisation has influenced the schools and other educational institutions to adopt innovative approaches to education. In addition, the schools have constantly redesigned their policies to align the educational system to meet the international standards and practices accordingly (Robertson & White, 2003).
This eventually reflects that the impact of globalisation and internationalisation is quite severe due to which the educational system has shifted from close-ended to open ended, while providing the youth with an opportunity to enhance their learning through the change in curriculum and educational style (Ng, 2003).
Globalisation and Internationalisation for Educationists in the Local Context
There is no doubt that education has become the chief concern of nations due to globalisation and internationalisation. With the changes in curriculum, the educationists are forced to enhance their learning to acquire new teaching methods to adjust to the requirement of labour market (Rizvi, 2011).
The educational reforms are being catalysed in the form of change in curriculums. As a result, the educationists are continually encouraged to meet the international practices by enhancing their technological literacy to teach new things in new ways. Flexibility, on the other hand has significantly enhanced the educationists’ abilities to acquire new knowledge and skills. Education plays a fundamental role in the development of nations due to which it has been acknowledged as an international commodity rather than national affair. As a result, the teachers are constantly provided with training sessions to develop their skills and competencies to provide the students with quality education (Olmedo and Harbon, 2010).
The globalisation and internationalisation has significantly influenced the educationists to meet the international standards effectively. In order to do so, the educationists have worked day and night to meet the international requirements by significantly enhancing their skills and core competencies. As a result, the educationists now use new methods of teaching. With the passage of time, the importance of local context has diminished while the international context has been provided with significant amount of importance (IIEP, 1998).
The amount of importance given to multi-lingual and multi-cultural environment has been significantly enhanced by the educationists. Providing quality education to the students has become the primary goal of the educationists and to meet the international standards continuous efforts have been made to change the curriculum and techniques by the educationists. Furthermore, the collaboration among the educationists has helped in educating and providing the students with quality education regardless of the language they speak or the religion they follow. This reflects that the diversity in language has significantly been reduced to mold the behavior of the minorities (Al’Abri, 2011).
Exploration of Internationalisation and Globalisation within the Context
This section of the study tends to evaluate the impact of globalisation and internationalisation on the educational context. Some of the prominent factors that have been constantly influenced are as follows;
Working Cross-Culturally and Cross-Linguistically
The globalisation and internationalisation has significantly influenced the educationists to focus highly on the management of cross-culture and cross-linguistics. In earlier years, the educationists had to deal with students that shared mono-culture and mono-language. This reflects that the diversity in schools was at its minimum. But with globalisation and internationalisation at work, the environment at the educational institutions completely changed and the students were provided with an opportunity to learn more about others from different cultures. In order to provide quality educations, the teachers were forced to train for the development of their contemporary skills and core competencies (Alim and Pennycook, 2007).
In order to manage the diversity in the educational institutions, the educationists are constantly encouraged to help the international students to speak English while maintaining an effective balance between the cultures. This has significantly allowed the students to take advantage of the language to gain acceptance within the educational institution by the educationists as well as the students (Horsky & Chew, 2010). On the other hand, the globalisation and internationalisation significantly impacted the students. With a sudden change in the educational institution’s environment, the students had to face significant challenges. One of the most prominent challenges includes the acceptance of international student for quite some time (Pennycook, 2008).
Understanding Identity and Difference
The understanding of identity difference in the educational institutions has played significant role in closing the cultural gap among the students. Despite the negative perception of youth towards one another due to cultural difference, they were able to understand and appreciate one another’s identity. The major role of educationists in the creation of environment where each individual was considered equal to another helped to great extent (Banks, 2011).
Taking into consideration the impact of globalisation and internationalisation, standard education system was incorporated through the change in curriculum where the studies was not just limited about a single region or country but took the whole world into consideration. This significantly helped the students and the educationists to understand the cultural differences while accepting the separate identity (Ha, 2009).
Teaching (and English Teaching) in Contexts Worldwide
English is one of the most commonly used languages in the world. Almost 85 percent of the world communicates and interacts in English. To effectively approach the diversity (i.e. international students), English was considered to be the primary language for educational context worldwide.
Their language skills of international students were constantly becoming a challenge for the students. For instance, the international students lacked argumentative and analytical skills while being criticised for being uncritical (Ballard & Clanchy, 1991; Barrett-Lennard, 1997; Samuelowicz, 1987).
Race, Identity and Difference
The Australian education system has always planned to provide its students with safe and comfortable environment that is free of any fear associated with physical or verbal abuse. In order to continue the provision of such environment, the educational institutions have ensured to reduce the racial tension and the negative racial attitude of the students (Mansouri and Jenkins, 2010).
For the reduction of racial tension, the educationist’s role has always been crucial. The educationists have now focused to work within the multicultural context while challenging their abilities to provide the best possible education to the students from diverse backgrounds. Over the last decade, the educationist’s approach to gain significant amount of information in terms of values and culture has fuelled the educationists to get closer to the international students while focusing on the local students as well (Hiferty, 2008). As a result of educationist’s commitment towards the provision of safe and fear free environment, the Federal Government of Australia has significantly increased the migration program which has resulted in the increase in multi-cultural school population (Den Brok and Levy, 2005)
Technological and Digital Change
The advancement in technology has played a crucial role in improving the life of people around the globe. Through technology, the people are provided with an opportunity to connect with one another while understanding their differences and accepting such differences gracefully. Global mobility has significantly enhanced and has become one of the defining characteristics of youth (Singh, 2005).
The enhancement in technology has provided the educational institutions with significant opportunities to provide the local and international students with quality education. For instance, the use of audio/video devices for lectures, and the use of e-learning sites to provide the students with quality of information have gracefully been accepted by the teachers as well as the students. As revealed by Albrow (1991), the advancement of technology has revolutionised the world and has incorporated the people from all over the world into a single society.
Teaching in New Times
Technology has played crucial role throughout the history. Through effective use of technology, educationists have been provided with opportunities in terms of literacy development, language acquisitions and greater access to information while motivating the students to enhance their self-esteem (Walsh, 2007). In addition, Walsh (2007) revealed that technology not only motivate the individuals to enhance their learning but also positively influence them to use the technology as well. This reflects that the use of technology has been adopted not only by youth but educationists as well. The use of technology in classroom reflects the commitment of teachers towards their students.
Globalisation and internationalisation have not only impacted the business landscape but has also significantly influenced the educational institutions to change as well. In order to survive in such revolutionary era, the educational institutions have brought changes in their curriculum to meet the international standards. For instance, the standardisation of education to focus on the whole world rather than just a region has significantly attracted international students from time to time.
The findings are quite similar to that of researchers and authors regarding the impact of globalisation and internationalisation on educational institutions and educationists. The findings reveal that educationists have constantly worked on providing the international students with fear free environment where they are accepted and appreciated regardless of their race, religion and cultural difference. Furthermore, the use of technology to provide the students with quality education has significantly increased. For instance, the use of games in classroom has significantly attracted the students to take interest in studies. This has significantly helped in teaching as well as in increasing the skills and core competencies of the students.
For the internationalisation of curriculum two most important factors should be taken into consideration (i.e. the use of language, and appreciation of culture regardless of race and differences).
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