Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
MMIP is mainly used in mental health to help identify the psychopathology of patients. In 1939, psychologists from the University of Minnesota developed the instrument to measure personality. The original MMPI was revised in 1980 as way to improve its effectiveness however the original MMPI is still being used in diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses.
The purpose of this instrument is mainly to measure personality but it is also in the field of clinical psychology to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Outside this field of clinical psychology, the instrument is used in courts mainly for criminal defenses and custody dispute. In high risk professions, MMPI is used for screening individuals and evaluating the effectiveness of programs.
Validity and reliability of MMPI can be illustrated in three distinct forms. They include: detecting under reporting by respondent, detecting over reporting by respondent, and detecting inconsistency in responding or non-responding. There are several scales used to be able to detect all these three forms. They include: the F scale, the L scale, the K scale, the “?” scale, and the Fb scale. These are the validity scales used to help in determining the mental state of the respondents.
Collecting the normative data is through administration of the various validity scales. Scoring does not entirely imply the performance of the respondent however the analysis usually considers the elevation of factors and compares it to different norms.
Administration of the instrument is fairly simple and this implies the ease of learning how to administer the tool. But, interpretation of the scores is rather complex and only requires qualified personnel in mental health to interpret the data.
MMPI has been research extensively in the field of clinical psychology. It is in fact the most research personality test instrument and most of the research studies conducted have established the effectiveness of the tool in achieving its purpose. It is for this reason that the tool is still widely being used today. It is considered qualitative in nature as it is able to describe the psychological status of an individual.
SAT (Standardized test for college admission in the US)
The assessment tool was first introduced in 1926 by the Educational Testing Service. Several changes have been made ever since it was introduced. Carl Brigham, Henry Moore, and Robert Yerkes were the original formulators of the instrument. However, the tool is currently owned and published by the College Board.
The primary purpose of the instrument is to measure the readiness of students for college. Students intending to join university and colleges all across the US are first subjected to the test to establish their readiness.
The scores of SAT have been proven to be valid only for a period of time, normally five years, after which they are rendered invalid and one would be required to sit for another SAT test in order to be deemed ready for college,
The instrument has also proven to be highly reliable. Most studies conducted to test its reliability have so far been consistent in their findings. The true score of a student in this instrument is between the range of plus or minus 30 points of the measured score. The internal consistency efficient of the instrument is .91 while the standard deviation is 100. The test retest reliability coefficient has been proven to have 85.
Scoring range for SAT is from 600 to 2400. This would make a combined result of all the sections involved. There are three main sections in the tool and each has possible high score of 800. The three sections include mathematics, critical reading, and writing. In most cases SAT is given to high school students and therefore teachers are qualified to administer the tests to students. The College Board is body responsible for evaluating the results of the test.
SAT has been proven to be reliable and valid. The results from the test determine whether students have been prepared sufficiently for college. However, it is mainly quantitative in nature since the level of one’s preparedness is measured quantitatively.
IQ test is also mental test and the modern version of the test is said to have began in France during the 19th century. Currently there are numerous IQ tests which have been developed by various proponents. For instance the Welchsler Adult intelligent scale was developed by David Welchsler and first published in 1955.
The purpose of the IQ tests is mainly to assess intelligence. The scores of IQ tests have been proven to be both valid and reliable. Statistical mechanisms have been used to prove its reliability and validity. This means that there is some general agreement in the scores despite when an individual takes the test in different occasions. Standard error of measurement is only 3 while the degree of confidence is 95 percent.
The mean score is normally set to 100 while the standard deviation to 15. Test takers can have a score that ranges within 70 and 130. Administration of the tests can easily be done either manually or using a computer device. It is also simple to interpret the scores.
Having been proven to be highly reliable and valid, the test is very important in various social settings including schools, employment, and in hospitals. For instance, a teacher can use the results from the test to distinguish the low ability students from the high ability students in order to establish different approaches in teaching the two groups.
Coyle, T., & Pillow, D. (2008). SAT and ACT predict college GPA after removing g. Intelligence, 719–729.
Mingroni, M. (2004). The secular rise in IQ: Giving heterosis a closer look. Intelligence, 65–83.
Osberg, T. M., Haseley, E. N., & Kamas, M. M. (2006). The MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Comparative psychometric properties and relative diagnostic efficiency in young adults. Journal of Personality Assessment., 90, 81-92.