- Ingestion of fava beans increases the formation of free radicals in red blood cells which in turn causes disruption on the normal functioning or reduction of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase enzyme. Consequently, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reduces and therefore the red blood cells are incapable of defending themselves from the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species. This makes the damaged cells to breakdown and rupture prematurely hence hemolysis.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase pathway
The G6PD gene is located from base pair 153,759,605 to base pair 153,775,795 on the X chromosome.
- Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cell cytoplasm. Fatty acid synthesis is initiated when the body detects increased levels of glucose in the blood. Insulin is then secreted by the pancreas which stimulatyes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase enzyme. The two enzymes work together to change acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA and later to the fatty acid palmitate. On the other hand, fatty acid oxidation takes place in the mitochondria. Glucagon is produced in response to commencement of fatty acid oxidation. The glucagon hormone then stimulates enymes whose work is to clip off or remove fatty acids from triglyceride molecules from the blood. They are then taken up by the cytoplasm and then transported to the mitochondria for oxidation.
- This is so because after much starvation, there is lack of enough glucose in the blood that makes the acidicity of citric acid to increase beyond the normal range. Therefore, the normal conditions for the production of fatty acids to metabolize acetyl CoA are compromised.
- Lack of insulin which is vital in regulation of glucose in the blood, diabetes mellitus occurs since glucose cannot enter the cells of a living things leading to cells having less energy. The person then experiences fatigue. Diabetes mellitus can also be a result of increased production of glucose in blood that results in greater excretion of glucose by kidneys than usual. More water will be taken by the produced glucose and hence a diabetic patient suffers frequent urination. It also leads to production of more ketones in blood than usual hence ketosis.