Industrial Organizational psychology is a branch of psychology that is concerned with workplace. It basically deals with the state of the workers and the organization in which they are employed in. In the current society, there is very high competition and growth of the economy and this has changed the workers attitudes, mental and physical development at the workplace. Organizational psychology is therefore inevitable if one wants to understand of organizational behavior, organizational breadth, and justice. Basically, organizational justice is focused on fairness within the organization by recognizing and considering differences in workers attitudes with special focus on turnover intentions, organizational commitment, job performance, leader-member exchange, and trust (Andrews, 2001).
In the sense of criminal justice, psychology is a way of understanding human behavior and organizations through ethical and humane approach and construction of rational explanatory systems. This profession seeks to apply ethical knowledge and methods to predict the probability of criminal behavior and avoiding such acts. This type of psychology that is mainly concerned with criminal behavior is respects unsparing criticism and research findings. The unsparing criticism is is the main source of advancement and development in psychology. It is important to cut down on the cost of crime and criminal justice which is only achieved through acquisition of knowledge. In order to understand criminal behavior, psychology tries to expound criminal conduct in through systematic explanation, rationally organized, and practical interest in criminal justice. In organizations, justice is the first primary virtue for every social institution and it consists of three perspectives that is distributive, procedural, and Interactional justice. They all deal with exercising fairness (Furnham, 2011).
In the empirical aspect goes beyond the observable facts concerning the scope of individual variation in criminal justice to include biological, interpersonal, situational as well as social variables related to criminal behavior. Gender is an example of these covariates of criminality. Secondly, is the theoretical understanding which seeks to establish the general, rational, simple as well as empirical explanations? Finally, the practical aspect guarantees the theoretical foundation of psychology and criminal justice. Such guarantee is enhanced by the knowledge and the understanding of both the predictors and causes.
Actions rewarding one person or a group of persons while infringing the smooth living of others are detrimental and justifiably punishable under the stipulated rules and regulations. However an empirical investigation of the causative effect of such antisocial behaviors should be taken into account. Justice requires that smooth conduct of individuals with their environment is of paramount need. However psychologists imply that human general behaviors be it criminal or not is as a result of their interaction with the environment and thus justification of misconduct should be of interest when punishing criminals. Therefore organizational problematic circumstance should be approached as needs (Furnham, 2011). This calls for a clear distinction between deviant needs and non-deviant needs. Deviant or criminogenic needs are variable risk factors. The dynamism in risk factors gives chances to the overall change in criminology. Since the change in non-criminogenic needs does not lead to possibility of criminal acts, the renunciation of criminogenic needs means the reduction of the deviance of the need objective as the designation of non-criminogenic actions does not determine the occurrence of future organizational based crimes.
There exist so many reasons as to why it is of great need to control and prevent criminal acts in an organization. A criminal behavior in an organization means psychological immaturity and lack of self-objective hence weak self-control. Responsible and professionally ethical personnel are required to apply super-egoism when confronted by a need and thus avoid bending rules and regulations to suit their needs. Such criminal acts possess major risk factors when the actor happens to be caught for example it may result to weak super-ego (little guilt and disturbed inter-personal relationships).Criminal acts lead to the organizational failure through tarnishing the supremacy of the organization. It is therefore justifiable and of need to create a criminal free environment in an organization. For instance you cannot expect hungry accountant to starve to death for the sake of avoiding ethical dilemmas (Andrews, 2001).
Facilitation of the development of personal protective factors (strength) is helpful in an attempt to reduce organizational criminal behaviors. Strengths are personal traits and conditions aimed at bypassing criminality. For instance approaching criminal activities as very negative and should be avoided at any cost, is a strength factor. Criminal geared personal characteristics should be viewed as organizational risks and thus justifiably avoidable (Furnham, 2011).
Organizational psychology in the context of criminal justice entails an in depth analysis of the all the concepts of human psychology. This is mainly because the psychology of criminal conduct is both an interdisciplinary and a subfield of human psychology and criminology. Being a scientific field, psychology makes psychology of criminal conduct concerned with providing empirically defensive explanations of many of the criminal behavioral phenomenon. Criminal behavior has always derived interest and thus mainstreamed in general psychology as a scientific concept.
In a professional context, proper organizational psychology aims at efficient and effective administration and application of psychological knowledge and skills at their organizations. This helps in the improvement of the general welfare and standards of criminal justice. The applications of the concepts of organizational psychology has for a longer time not been incorporated in the operations of criminal justice as a whole. Psychological analysis of criminal justice greatly contributes to the understanding of the many aspects of numerous criminal incidences. The application of general psychology has found numerous applications in the functioning of organizations that are concerned with criminal justice (Carson, 2007). The major areas general organizational psychology that have found necessary applications in criminal justice includes the following; sensation and perception, assessment and evaluations, emotions and motivations, human development, learning and cognition, history and philosophy, memory and information, biological and physiological psychology. The above mentioned aspects of general psychology play major roles in the functions of criminal justice. This is through increasing efficiency in all levels of organizational structure by providing a concrete framework for the achievement of criminal justice. As a result, criminal justice seeks to establish a richer and deeper understanding of all the aspects of criminal behavior than those that could only be found through the investigation of sociological criminology.
In the context of criminal justice, the use of empirical statistics is used to derive conclusions regarding the conduct of people in the society especially with respect to criminal activities. The predictors of the conduct of the people are determined using empirical means. This process also determination of the probability of criminal conduct occurring (Carson, 2007).
This process of social psychological model aims at shaping human behavior in the organization as well as third parties that the organization relates with the business in the normal business operations. This involves various processes in which the organization shapes the values and principles regarding the management of staff in the organization. This will also help in identification of both risks and uncertainties.
The models used involve the extension of efforts to prevent the crime from occurring and this is done through social services both to individuals and the small groups. The model may involve clinical method in solving these problems. The necessary efforts are therefore required to facilitate the process of ensuring criminal injustice in various aspects of life especially with issues to do with psychological needs of the individuals. The organization should therefore adapt measures which can facilitate administration of criminal justice (Cole, 2010).
The criminal activities are usually as a result of the high risks associated with the offenders. The treatment should therefore be offered to prevent or reduce the occurrence of these criminal acts and this can be easily done through rehabilitative measures by the organization. This helps in the reduction in the cases of criminal acts in the organization where the individual works. This is essential in order to provide justice to the victims of the crimes that occur in a given organization. Justice should therefore be pursued in order to take good care and consideration of the affected parties (Cole, 2010).
Organizational psychology has mechanisms that help in responding to the acts of the criminals in the organization. This scale responds quickly to activities which are of essence in the conduct of the employees in the organization. This may also help in solving conflicts that are associated with their day to day life activities of the people in a given organization. This has necessitated the need of several policies which are useful in correction of behaviors as well as ensuring criminal justice is obtained with respect to organizational psychology.
In summary industrial organizational psychology in the context of criminal justice requires an in-depth explanation of the criminality of individual actions in the work place. This requires a research on the reasons as to why specific individual behave differently toward others and therefore come up with reliable ways of administering justice in the work place as human interaction with environment greatly influence his/her psychology.
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct. Albany, N.Y.: Lexis Nexis/Anderson Pub.
Carson, D. (2007). Applying psychology to criminal justice. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Cole, G. F., & Smith, C. E. (2010). The American system of criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Furnham, A., & Taylor, J. (2011). Bad apples: Identify, prevent & manage negative behavior at work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kelly, D. H. (2009). Criminal behavior: Text and readings in criminology. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Sanders, J., & Hamilton, V. L. (2001). Handbook of justice research in law. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.