While the political avant-garde of modernist movement had a celebration of dissidence and proceeded to advocate a revolution of art and contemporary life, postmodern art delightfully exist in a world that shows the pluralism of atheistic manner and way of play. Art hardly ever functions on a critical level: the political prospect becomes separate from contemporary art functions. Postmodern art turns to represent not only the consumer society that we live but also a privileged commodity.
In the 1960s, "committed" art had turned to be the pillar if artistic postmodernism. Gender issues, class, and race become central particularly following the publication of Michael Foucault. Institutional, local and contingent struggles as well as relations with gender turned to become main issues of concern as was notably the case with American artist Barbara Kruger. However, artists quickly noted that in late capitalist society, commodification does not spare anything or anyone.
Therefore, the work of postmodern artists of the late 1980s and 1990s indicates an understanding of the inseparable commodification, the inevitable assimilation of postmodern art by the market force. Just as committed art had been underwritten by late theories of Foucault, the latter works of postmodernist artists owes much to the Jean Baudrillard ideas. Contemporary art, therefore, aims at exploring different materials with the goal of expressing specific ideas concerning postmodern life (Waters, 2010). Investigating the different schools and styles of contemporary art that have existed since the late 1960s to the present day will result in a better understanding of how different periods and events influence artists.
There is no doubt that practices of contemporary art have been shaped above all globalization forces, from the 1980s until recently, preponderated with international economic exchange accompanied world politics and disseminated spectacle as an individual theater and collective people's imagination of life all over the world. The main historical art is the claim that a worldwide shift from modern art to contemporary art was anticipated in various movements in the late modern art of the 1960s in Euroamerica and became clearer in the art world in 1970s. Postmodernist practices saw significant signals of this transformation, poststructuralist, and postmodern theory its initial examination. Additionally, Jones (2009) affirmed the emergence of more schools of contemporary art in the 1970s. Moreover, the phenomenon of the market in various centers in the 1990s saw the expansion of contemporary market but at the same time divided by emergent art form the rest of the world.
With the emergence of various contrasting portraits that propelled the shift for modern art to postmodern arts, the priority of form and importance of context, and between visions oriented to future and a sense of historical contingency. In other words, modern art tends to emphasize the first side in each polarity: freedom, from a futurity. Postmodern art tends to emphasize the second side: construction, context, and contingency. Cultural polarities are not exclusions. However, one side links tightly with the other. Moreover, contingency art in public presupposes these polarities but does not come down neatly on either side. To simplify, according to McGowan (2013), modern art focuses on the creation of unique and enduring art pieces. Contemporary art, on the other hand, focuses on the idea rather than the kind of material and endurance of the artwork (McGowan, 2013)
Postmodern art is made of the signs and customer goods that flood the social space. Thus, there is evidence that connects the body sport so presents in contemporary culture. Postmodern includes, but are not limited to fashion, television, cinema and photography; domains that are more and more connected to the body in general, and sport in particular. Postmodern art envelopes popular culture and reproduces commodities as well as symbols. On the other hand, the media obsession with the cybernetic reality of contemporary culture helps individuals understand the dynamics of the commodification of postmodern art. For many recent artists, contemporary art involves examination of newly developed methods of art including video and sound installations, as well as environmental constructions (Art History, 2013).
Post-modernist art keeps on evolving with newer forms emerging every day. Every account of postmodern art constructs a new genealogy of contemporary art, with various histories canons and evaluation and emphases as well as judgment. The postmodern turn in art mobilizes motifs from dad, cubism, and Duchamp works into a new (anti)aesthetic that rejects key tenets of modernism to create new verities and moderns of art for the contemporary era. Postmodern visual arts range from the representation of objects of the everyday life of Johns and Rauschenberg to the pop art of Lichtenstein and Warhol that replicates the icons of customs society, to neo-geo and art stimulation. It seeks the capture of new experiences of computer society, to the works done by Jenny Holzer, Barbara Kruger, and David Wojnarwics, which employs the strategies of postmodern art to advance critiques of the media and customs society.
Contemporary Art in the 1970s
With the renewed interns in representation that pop artists and Superrealists introduced in the 1960s and 1970, the artist once again began to embrace the perusable powers of art to communicate with the a wider audience. In the 1970s, most artists began to investigate the social dynamic of power and privilege, especially about gender, although racial, ethnic, and sexual orientation issues have additionally figured prominently for the art of recent decades. Women artist played a meaningful performance in the feminist action, which sought equal rights for women in contemporary society and emphasized the attention on the subservient place of women in societies all through history. Initiating the feminist art action of the 1970s were Judy Chicago as well as Miriam Schapiro. As Brodsky & Olin (2008) puts it, the early 1970s saw the emergence of postmodern, ugly realism and feminist art.
In the early 1970s, Chicago began planning an ambitious piece, known as, The Dinner Party, with the help of craft pieces such as needlework and Chinese painting, traditionally practiced by women for the celebration of achievements and contribution to what women had made all through history. Judy Chicago, for instance, conceived the original work as a feminist Last Super for 13 “honored guests” as in the biblical account of Christ’s passion, but at Chicago table, the guests are women instead of men. The women numbers as witchcrafts cover are also thirteen, and artist intended her feminist DinnerParty to refer additionally to witchcraft and the worship of Mother Goodness. However, since Chicago had uncovered various worthy women in the course other observation, she tripled the number of guests and position table settings for 39 women around a triangular table. The triangular table was a symbol of both woman and the goddess. The idea of dinner party additionally alludes to women’s traditional role as homemakers.
The period between 1975 and 1980 saw the emergence of nine style of contemporary art, of which seven are still in continuation in the twenty-first century (Visual Arts, 2007). Having arisen in the late 1950s and 1960s, the patterns of postmodernism in expressions of the human experience rapidly spread through writing painting, engineering, movie, theater, film, and music, overflowing into logic, social hypothesis, and science by the late 1970s and 1980s. In contrast to the differentiating impetus of modernism, postmodernism adopts a differentiating approach that will fully subvert boundaries between high and low art, artist and spectators and among different artistic forms and genre. Contemporary art styles vary, some of them emulating artists achievements from previous centuries, and others build up very recent innovation. Members of very styles draw upon a set of ideas that is available to artists at particular points in time from which they select certain ones to combine in new ways.
Every art style presents a particular configuration of concepts and symbols that function as a "worldwide for its embers. It is apparent that the Chinese state, eager to project an updated and international-minded image for the twenty-first century, as taken steps and in ensuring and institutionalizing a very dynamic subculture and the mainstream contemporary Chinese culture. The increasing movement of various levels of Chinese cultural authorities in the production and dissemination of contemporary art has been referred to as “The Art Museum Age.” The providence of Bad Painting, if not as fully fledged movement then at the very least as a sentiment or set of attitudes that was brought to what was a predominantly figurative approach to painting, stemmed from an exhibition Marcia Tucker curated in 1978 at New York's New Museum. ‘Bad’ Painting, as Eva Badura-Triska notes included only American artist who had resisted the dictates of the avant-garde of the 1960s and 1970s by painting figurative in highly personal idioms, but who rejected all canon of painting and refused to develop a signature style.
Contemporary Art during The 80s
Between 1980 and 1985, two art styles emerged namely, free figuration, and Neue Wilde. Art critique Bernard Lamarche-Vadel in 1981 presented the work of various young painters in an exhibit known as "Fair en Beaute." Ben, identified the event as one other new movement which later was recognized as "free figuration." The need for a new interpretation of contemporary naturally arises from dissatisfaction with earlier interpretation, which has often appreciated the art or in a broader sense any contemporary art from the so-called Second and Third worlds either exclusive in its domestic context or as a straightforward manifestation of globalization. The first approach follows a traditional at historical narrative defined by nations and the second privileges a totalizing, global perspective that stymies local angle of observation.
In the 1980s, when the painting was supposedly dead as an art form—replaced, apparently, by conceptual at multimedia and installation art, the Neue Wilde group performed CPR on its still-warm corpse, creating a style of painting which was more about the paint of the canvas than the concept behind it. The Neue Wild, which includes painters such as Otto Ziko, Herbert Bradley, Siegfried Anzeiger, – is committed to maintaining the Austrian painting tradition, whether figurative or abstract and their work crosses a variety of subject a matter and styles. Brandle, for instance, paints large-scale landscapes where literal representations of mountains and forests dissolve into abstract metaphors and symbols. The Neue Wilde takes as inspiration of thousands of years of traditional Viennese painting stretched back to Middle Ages
Although to suggest the possibility of reintegration of the spiritual in art is not the direction of mainstream criticism and practice, there is ample evidence in the work of diverse artistic ethnicities to show this is a significant trend in this pluralistic era. The mid-1980s saw the emergence of multivocal, multicultural and feminist models of spirit that can be used to deconstruct the traditional interpretation of the manifestations of the spiritual in art while showing how criticism based on deconstructionist theory works to perpetuate rather than eradicate parochial myths of religious origin in the postmodern era. Multiscale models can additionally be used to provide the alternative interpretation of contemporary art and may shed light on the seeming incoherence of pluralism. In attempting to make connections between seemingly static dualities, art in the parents moment may be sparkling back to repeat an essentially religious act of binding up. The present, manifestation of the spiritual contradicts the beliefs of the traditional. Seen in the light of feminist and multicultural approaches at the creed, contemporary art is neither in search of absolute ideal nor obsessed with frustration over the temporality of human existence. Beauty, completeness, and sense of the scare are not limited to the realm of being can only be realized in a conception of infinity outside of time; rather art, life and scared are understood to be processes of becoming.
In the late 1980s, while pursuing BFA in painting and printmaking in San Francisco, Mc Gee began painting on the street, exacting his tag name "TWIST" in small stylized letters and creating massive, wall-spraining murals punctuated with frowning faces and giant cartoons like screws. Many of his trademark strategies developed naturally as a result of the demands of unsanctioned pubic art. The recurring problem of the way to access the train cars and building rooftop that were idle surfaces for graffiti often required Mc Gee to come up with creative and dangerous solutions. As his studio practice developed, McGee brought this same daring ingenuity to installations, leaving museum-goers as impressed with artiste's wherewithal as they might have been on seeing a TWIST mural on the roof f a ten-story building.
The 1980s also saw the emergence and growth of street art movements including neo-pop styles (Michno, 2015). It is undeniably true that even the early form of graffiti was exhibited as an art form in the 1980s and that it has been argued to represent the most important art movement of the late twentieth century. On the other hand, the expressions "Neo-Pop" or "Post-Pop" especially alludes to the work of craftsmen like Haim Steinbach, Alan McCollum, Jeff Koons, and Ashley Bickerton. Title to disguise its electric mix of blue chip, early century moderns, elderly make weights and the Neo Expressionists at once confirmed the academy of new-congestive attitudes in the art world in the wake of political votaries of Ronald Regan and turned round the generally declined fortunes of its host institution. Perhaps equally important for the future of art market however was its making of collection of Saatchi who has been investigating many of the artists represented in the exhibition and who received strategic positions in the market over the next few years. Utilizing unmistakable items, celebrity images and symbols and images from pop culture of the 1980s and 1990s, this upgraded type of Pop-Art likewise drew motivation from Dada, and also advanced Conceptual workmanship
Contemporary Art 1990-2000
Western art’s new avant-garde arguably attributed to the "young British artists" in the early 1990s. These artists formed what has come to be known as "sensationalism" and they explore contemporary experiences as well as traditional "big themes" of art, such as mortality and human identity, but in a playfully maverick and characteristically postmodern way. Perhaps the best known "young British artist is Damien Hirst. Hirst propelled his career and the career of many of the young British artists with the artists led-exhibition entitled "Freeze" in London.
Most young British artists used shock tactics to bring awareness to significant themes in art, and they unabashedly tackled cultural themes such as morality, and sacred and what means to be human. Also, the early 1990s saw the emergence of net art, artefactoria, toyism, and lowbrow art styles. Robert Williams Lowbrow Art best known today for a neologism, "lowbrow art" where William captured and encapsulated all the whirling cultural production that was on gong around him in California.
While the "highbrow" art would at the time wrapped up as though it were an increasingly polemical, academic and dry forms of Conceptual Art, which had scarcely taken monumental commingling of various streets sensibilities and popular aesthetics. The mid and late 1990s saw the emergence Stuckism. Bitterism and tiki art (Farago, 2015). Stuckism itself is an extremely vocal part of contemporary artistic types by individuals who never liked conceptual art. Stuckists dismiss the most imaginative elucidations of what is art and advocates making art, paying little heed to medium that has a more otherworldly esteem, craftsmanship that spotlights on more metaphorical painting and expression
A sub part of new media art is Net art, or internet art, which began in 1990s. This movement has political dimensions and Net artists use methods that are frowned upon many. Net artist accept the reach and democratic nature of the internet, but some cling to the belief that democracy is capitalist myth. They believe that much of the internet is controlled by corporations and try to oppose them by infiltrating their websites. Their wok takes the form of pop-up intervention on websites and applets that interfere with sites and make browse crash, hence another of their names being Browser art. They enter other peoples system to leve messages and create errors, which amount to hacking and is known as activism.
Contemporary art in the 21st Century
Only two styles have emerged in the twenty-first century, namely, thinkism, and funism. Thinksim characterizes itself less as a workmanship development and more as a belief system for social change. Artists that banish to Thinkism see the requirement for workmanship advance thinking and examining social, individual, natural and otherworldly issues. Thinkism art is fundamentally the same in structure to some pop craftsmanship, however with a more grounded spotlight on message. David Kam is the originator and most unmistakable Thinkism craftsman. While, funism can be utilized to depict two different styles of art. The primary contributors are Sal Marino and Norm Magnusson - both cases to have developed the term Funism and they've stayed with that title, so there are two education thoughts to consider. Sal Marino's craft is encapsulated by society workmanship depictions that are ironical social editorial in nature.
The twenty-first century has also seen the establishment of a museum meant to house contemporary art. For instance, in a prescient 2000 article "The Culture Logic of the Late Capitalist Museum" Rosalind Krauss noted the impact on museum design of this shift or better drift with minimalist art (Krauss 2000). Her epiphany occurred when she experienced renovations to the Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris --changes that had been made to house an exhibition of classic minimalist works inducing the carefully wrought steel objects of Donald Judd laid industrial material, phenomenological installations of fluorescent tubes. She was amused by the way that art had influenced the architects to modify the interiors spaces of the museum so elegantly that these spaces attracted as much, if not more aesthetic attention than works they were ostensibly meant to house.
In conclusion, Contemporary art aims at exploring different materials with the aim of expressing specific ideas about postmodern life (Waters, 2010). Investigating the different schools and styles of contemporary art that have existed since the late 1960s to the present day will result in a better understanding of how different periods and events influence artists and their work. Also, it provides a platform for the current generation of artists to learn and understand the rich history that art has presented to the human generation.
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Jones, A. (2009). A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
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Lebourdais, G. P. (2015, August 24). The Most Iconic Artists of the 1990s. Retrieved from https://www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-the-most-iconic-artists-of-the-1990s
McGowan, W. (2013, November 8). Contemporary vs. Modern-What's the Difference. Retrieved from Wendistry: http://wendistry.com/contemporary-vs-modern-whats-the-difference/
Michno, C. (2015, December 15). How 1980s Aesthetics Influence Contemporary Artists Today. Retrieved from ArtBound: https://www.kcet.org/shows/artbound/how-1980s-aesthetics-influence-contemporary-artists-today
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Waters, J. (Writer), & Waters, J. (Director). (2010). John Waters: The Point of Contemporary Art [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from http://www.openculture.com/2010/09/john_waters_the_point_of_contemporary_art.html