Privacy in Brazil
Brazil is one of the many countries that have laws regulating the compilation, use, as well as disclosure of personal information; hence ensuring privacy. These are laws that cover personal information relating to individual customers, contracts, legal entities, employees and consumers. The Brazilian laws require that personal information should not be disclosed to anyone. Databases that contain personal information should be registered with an independent data protection authority, or with the government (Holton 2008). The laws also require that individuals whose information is kept by an organization be notified and their consent must be sought before collection, use, as well as transfer of personal information.
In Brazil, organizations are also required by the law to protect all the personal information not to get lost, misused, disclosed, accessed without authorization, or to be destroyed. Brazil is one of the few countries that are concerned about data security. As a result, the country prescribes detailed organizational and technical security measures (Wugmeister 2007). The privacy laws in Brazil require permission from (DPA) Independent Data Protection Authority before transferring any personal information. The DPAs do not grant permission in case the receiving country does not have strong laws of data protection. The laws ought to be strong as those of Brazil.
Civil and criminal penalties are awarded to those organizations that fail to adhere to the rules. The country, too, has rules for cross-border data transfers. The transfer covers giving of information to third parties, which include corporate affiliates and government authorities. The country has specific restrictions when it comes to cross-border transfers. Exemptions are, however, given to allow for international transfers so long as adequate safeguards can be ensured (Wugmeister 2007).
Current health provider in Brazil
Brazil has two health systems namely; The Unified Health System SUS, and the Complementary Medical Care system. SUS operates across the country and it has 475,699 health professionals who attend to the Brazilian population of 174.6 million people. The hospitals are approximately 6,000 in number with a capacity of approximately 500,000 hospital beds. The available ambulatory care centres are 62,865 (Elias 2003). Delivery of services is quite okay, but demand for health care services remains higher as compared to the country’s supply of health personnel and health facilities.
SSAM, on the other hand, provides health services to a small population. Health plans in Brazil appear medium, if not small. Contractual arrangements help in their operation, and they provide medical care in private hospitals. Recently, managed care became available in Brazil. Organizations responsible for health maintenance do not exist in Brazil (Varela 2010). Operators of health plans mainly emphasize control through standardized payments meant for specific procedures. This does not give room for the users to make choices, and the doctors are left with less autonomy. There has been considerable discussion regarding the impact of the managed care when it comes to access of care as well as the tensions brought about between doctors and patients.
In conclusion, Brazil has dual subsystems that present different and distinct institutionalization (Varela 2010). SSAM covers those Brazilians who are young, with low risks and those with greater purchasing power. SUS, on the other hand, offers health services to those people with low purchasing power and those with greater purchasing power but require complex health services. Therefore, provision and access of health services comes with the logic of private health practices, as well as marketing principles with an aim of meeting the needs of the population. Social exclusion and inequalities can, therefore be noted in the Brazilian way in provision of health services (Elias 2003).
Elias, M & Cohn, A 2003, ‘Health reform in Brazil: Lessons to consider,’ American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 44-8.
Holton, C 2008, ‘The impact of computer mediated communication systems monitoring on organizational communications content,’ University of South Florida.
Varela, P, Martins, A, Fávero, P, & Lopes. (2010). ‘Production efficiency and financing of public health: An analysis of small municipalities in the state of são paulo – Brazil,’ Health Care Management Science, 13(2), 112-23. doi: 10.1007/s10729-009-9114-y
Wugmeister, M., Retzer, K. & Rich, C. 2007, ‘Global Solution for Cross-Border Data Transfers: Making the Case for Corporate Privacy Rules*,’ Georgetown Journal of International Law, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 449-498.