According to Author (nd), there are a number of factors which influence an individual’s development. These are dependent on the inherent characteristics within an individual as well as the environment in which an individual lives. In all these, there are the factors which affect the psychological development.
According to the developmental theories suggested by the author (nd), the psychodynamic theories are best suited to explain the differences in development for the two children. This theory has it that there are the inherent characteristics within an individual. These characteristic are not determined by the situation in which an individual is in and neither are they affected by the environment. They are as indicated by Freud in his study on child development. The Electra complex and Oedipus complex tend to determine the direction in which young people take during their development. This explains the difference between the two.
The social theories are not suited at all to explain this difference between Jen and Ben. According to Author (nd), this theory has it that an individual’s character is a function of the environment in which he lives in. The social theories have it that an individual learns form the environment and gets to act as the ones around him. This theory completely fails in the case of Jen and Ben. They are brought in a similar environment but take different perspectives in life.
The difference between the two kids can only be explained by the fact that there is an internal psychological instinct which tells who an individual actually is. In as much as the environment might be different, these instincts will always manifest in an individual, indicating some characteristics which are ‘out of the ordinary’ but consistent with an individual’s kind. When nature and nurture compete, nature tends to carry the day.
According to Kohlberg’s theory (Author, nd), there are a number of steps that an individual has to go through in order to attain psychological maturity. There are six stages in totals. The first stage involves an individual associating obedience with lack of punishment. One tends to do everything just to avoid pain. The individual then goes to the next level which is the reward stage where everything an individual does is motivated by the good it brings to the person. An individual at this age is egocentric.
The third and fourth stages tend to look at an individual’s social ties. The former looks at the need for an individual to create these ties while the latter looks at the maintenance of the ties. The fifth step involves an individual considering the needs of others before making a decision, while the last step involves psychological maturity where an individual attains the universal values.
Based on the above explanation, it can be said that Jamal is in the fifth and sixth steps of the process. When he made the decision to donate his kidney to his brother, he was not obliged to do so. Rather, he considered what was right to be done. This is what he did in as much as it might have put him in danger. This is the true manifestation of psychological maturity where an individual cares not what happens to him. The main idea is to make sure that no harm comes to the other individual. This is what Jamal did. He put the interest of others before his own.