- Begin by briefly describing the political/administrative dichotomy developed by Wilson for public administration.
Woodrow Wilson’s study on public administration was developed in response to the increasing immigration, urbanization, loss of cultural values, and corruption in the United States. Wilson found the need to reform the government by encouraging two major issues in the political/administrative dichotomy. Firstly, Wilson played a great role in was concerned separating the administration from politics. The city management and public Authorities was concerned with preventing illegal immigration to United States between 1900 and 1915. A field of social work was established whose duties were to ensure effective public administration and maintenance of discipline. In addition, the unfit political class was discouraged from providing support to the immigrants in order to benefit from the government. Wilson argued that the government could only be preserved and achieves its growth through making leaders more focused on executing the laid down policies (Wilson & Pestritto, 2005; 66-70). All leaders in the government administration were non-partisan in politics that ensured a progressive strategy.
Secondly, the political dichotomy was taken as a strategic tool for bringing change in the country’s political leadership. Wilson argued that the most influential and best performing leaders in the government administration are those who had no political affiliates. The government was to get rid of politicians in public administration because they encouraged corruption. Most leaders who held political positions used their time and resources gathering more followers while the public sector was becoming paralyzed.
The political/administration dichotomy suggested by Wilson was supported by the following factors. To start with, USA was losing a lot of revenue on illegal immigrants who started unlicensed businesses in the region. The political dichotomy would ensure that the government keeps correct records of all immigrants and that no individual could operate illegal businesses without facing the full force of the law. Secondly, by eliminating politicians in leadership positions in the government administration, the government was in a position to advance and eradicate problems associated with corruption and misuse of office. Thirdly, the administration dichotomy was a perfect tool for bringing development in the country because it encouraged social equity. Leaders focused more on general public productivity with fear of being termed as non-performers and bearing the shame from the public. In addition, the civil service reformers ensured all administrative sector leaders performed their duties effectively to achieve the country’s vision.
Mary Parker Follett advocated that managers should not give orders but instead managers and workers should agree to take orders from the situation.
- Explain two principles of giving orders that were espoused by Follett
Follett’s first principle concerns with preparation of the manager before giving out an order. A manager should be prepared in advance because people always obey an order when follows their wills and desires. Follett’s principle argues that managers should consider how a certain order would form the habit capable of ensuring its execution. The second Follett’s principle of order giving suggests that a face-to-face order is preferred to long-distance order. According to Follett, a face-to-face order makes the manager more confident to face his or her followers and they are more likely to follow the order as opposed to long-distance orders (Follett, 1998; 254)
- Relate Follett’s management philosophy to a point made by three separate authors found in your text and to one point found in a module reading.
Follett’s management philosophy aligns with Barnard, Wolf and Iino’s arguments because both calls for transparent management practices whereby the manager knows the desires of other people. Follett relates management with politics and philosophy where she argued that politicians have no use in making management decisions because they speak for self-gains. Moreover, the three authors relate some of the poorly managed organizations that lack proper management because their leaders lack good cooperation with other employees. On the other hand, Follett, Barnard, Wolf and Iino based their arguments on the organization and communication. Communication is essential for the growth and development of an organization and managers should posses this virtue (Barnard, Wolf, & Iino, 1989; 50-53)
One of the tenets in the New Public Service is that administrators must seek the public interest.
- Briefly define the public interest as advocated by the New Public Service
The New Public Service advocated for relevance to the public. The new public service should condemn the traditional public administration because it had no interest in issues affecting normal citizens. The new public administration advocates for social equality and realities (Denhardt and Denhardt, 2011; 153). The chief goal of new public administration should be the realization of social equity. Secondly, the new public service advocates for value maintenance. All values served by the administration must be transparent in order to be in line with public in interests. On the other hand, the new public service calls for change in all public sectors. Wilson condemned highly the skepticism aimed at deeply rooted power from permanent institutions and their status quo. Finally, the new public services calls for public administrations to focus more on clients. The new public services should be accessible and responsible in order to create a positive change.
- Provide a definition of the public interest using the political process theory.
The political process theory defines public interest as common wellbeing of people in a nation in terms of politics, democracy, and the government nature. The political process theory identifies public interest as actions that are geared towards making the lives of citizens worth and happy through proper administration, change management, and social welfare (Denhardt and Denhardt, 2011; 46).
- Relate the public interest to three principles or points developed by three separate writers in your text or to your module readings. Must use at least three separate authors in your text, or, may use two theorists from your text and one module reading.
Denhardt and Denhardt also focus on public interest by defining various policies that should be adopted in the new public service. Denhardt and Denhardt argued that the new public management should focus on listening, serving and steering the public towards the right direction. In addition to serving and empowering citizens, the public administrators should focus on their responsibilities and implement public policies (Denhardt and Denhardt, 2011; 11-23).
Barnard, C. I., Wolf, W. B., & Iino, H. (1986). Philosophy for managers: selected papers of Chester I. Barnard. Tokyo: Bunshido.
Denhardt, J. V., & Denhardt, R. B. (2011). The new public service: serving, not steering (3rd ed.). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Follett, M. P. (1998). The new state group organization the solution of popular government. University Park, Penn: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Wilson, W., & Pestritto, R. J. (2005). Woodrow Wilson: The essential political writings. Lanham, Md. [u.a.: Lexington Books.