- What does the article conclude about spanking prohibition and what evidence did they used to support their findings?
The article has concluded that spanking prohibitions tend to be harmful as well as supportive for children as it impacts on their learning and behavior. Authors has used the evidence of Roberts studies and have concluded that spanking prohibitions restrict the backup options of reasoning and time out for parents which consequently enforce them to use physical tactics for disciplinary control on their children .
- What does the article conclude about conditional spanking and what evidence did they used to support their findings?
This particular article has suggested that conditional spanking is less adverse than corporal punishments, but it can also have negative impacts on children in the form of depressed and tensed behavior. Roberts’s studies show that it is mostly supported when a two to six years old child shows defiance to nonphysical disciplinary tactics such as time out. This conclusion is also supported by work of Larzelere et al. 1998 (Robert E. Larzelere, 1998).
- What impact did parenting dynamics have on the impact of spanking on children?
The article has discussed the impact of three kinds of parenting styles on spanking, which include authoritative parents, authoritarian parents and permissive parents. Baumrind’s longitudinal data (2010) showed that authoritative parents do not use physical tactics like spanking on their children. Instead, combine love, care and attention with rigid confronted discipline. In contrast, authoritarian parents use severe corporal punishment and show verbal hostility towards their children. While permissive parents abandon their parental authority and they do not use any kind of harmful and non harmful physical spanking on children.
Unlike authoritative parents, they avoid disciplinary confrontations and make few maturity demands. Many research studies have shown the superior effectiveness of Authoritative parenting . Children of Authoritative parents are more competent as compared to Authoritarian parents. Whereas children of Permissive parents tend to be second least competent when compared with children of Authoritative and Authoritarian parents.
Baumrind, D., Larzelerea, R. E., & Owensb, E. B. (2010). Effects of preschool parents’ power assertive patterns and practices on adolescent development. Parenting: Science and Practice , 10 (3), 157-201.
Robert E. Larzelere. (1998). Punishment enhances reasoning’s effectiveness as a disciplinary response to toddlers. Journal of Marriage and Family , 60 (2), 388-400.
Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things:parent-adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence , 11 (1), 1-19.