Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field. In this area of study, scientists research on the comprehensive structure and function of the brain. There are various interests that scientists can take within the science. They range from the molecular fabric of the neuron together with its biochemical processes to the macroscopic structure of the brain. The study further entails the brain’s relation to cognitions, emotions and behavior. These three factors work hand in hand towards a common objective. The goal is to provide answers to our most pressing individual and societal issues.
Currently, neuroscience is the fastest growing field in basic scientific research. Neuroscientists have capitalized on the diversity of disciplinary methods to enhance their perspective on particular issues. This interdisciplinary philosophy enriches discussions and usually results in innovative and novel methodologies to research problems. The nervous system and its correlation to behavior and thinking processes bring many complex challenges for scientists to explore. This particular essay places its primary focus on the frontal lobe, and the breakthroughs scientists have made over the past few years.
The frontal lobe is the brain's section which controls critical cognitive skills in human beings. These skills are such as problem-solving, emotional expression, memory, judgment, language and sexual behavior. Furthermore, it is responsible for basic motor function. In humans, this lobe is larger and more developed that in all other animals. As the name goes, the frontal lobe is at the front part of the brain. The right hemisphere controls the left and vice Versa. Damage to this area can bring about personality changes, difficulty in interpreting one's environment and limited facial expressions.
In recent years, various discoveries have been made regarding the frontal lobe. In a recent study, a group of researchers used advanced brain imaging techniques to show how remembering the past and envisioning the future goes hand in hand. Each process showed similar activity patterns within the same extensive network of brain regions. The experiment showcased that envisioning of the future might be a crucial prerequisite for numerous higher-level planning processes within the brain (Schacter et al., 677).
Also, for a while now, scientists have known that women and men’s brains slightly differ. A study conducted in 2001 found that some particular parts of the brain had different sizes in males and females. The research found that some areas of the frontal lobe, responsible for solving problems and decision making including the limbic cortex, that regulates emotions were larger in women. In males, the parietal cortex, involved in the perception of space, and the amygdala, responsible for sexual and social behavior, were larger. Men have more gray matter than women. Women have more of the white matter than men. This study, therefore, helps us to understand the differences in nature and behavior of the different sexes. We get a greater understanding as to why the gender tend to behave the way they do (Sowell et al., 1550)
In the unfortunate event of injuries or diseases to the frontal lobe, various innovative methods have been developed over the years. Speech therapy helps patients to manage symptoms resulting from aphasia, dysarthria, and apraxia. More recent advances in FTLD genetics and pathophysiology have led to the development of potential disease-modifying treatments. These also include symptomatic therapies geared towards eradicating behavioral and social deficits (Miller & Cummings 27). All these developments continue to give hope to patients with neural disorders both now and in future.
Schacter, Daniel L., et al. "The future of memory: remembering, imagining, and the brain." Neuron 76.4 (2012): 677-694. Retrieved 31, March 2016 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627312009919
Miller, Bruce L., and Jeffrey L. Cummings, Eds. The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders. Guilford Press, 2007.Print.
Sowell, Elizabeth R., et al. "Sex differences in cortical thickness mapped in 176 healthy individuals between 7 and 87 years of age." Cerebral Cortex 17.7 (2007): 1550-1560. Retrieved 31, March 2016 from https://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/7/1550.full