In their article “Explaining and sustaining the crime drop: Clarifying the role of opportunity-related theories”, Farrell et al (2010) attempt to explain the reasons behind the notable drop in crime rates in the developed economies. In making this attempt, Farrell et al (2010) evaluate the various theories that various criminologists have developed in their endeavors to explain the phenomenon. According to the article, most of the theories are unfounded, as they cannot be measured empirically. The article argues that shamefully, the world of criminology has not been able to explain the reasons behind the notable drop in crime. None of the previous theories has been developed in such a style that it can establish a basis for policymaking. According to the security hypothesis, advancements and other changes in the quality and quantity of security are responsible for the crime drop.
Among the most prominent theories explained previously are such presumptions as the routine activity theory, situational crime prevention as well as the theory of environmental criminology. The article by Farrell et al (2010) explains situational crime prevention as the use of strategies that can only be effective in context. On the other hand, the article describes environmental criminology as a situation where the cause of crimes in a region is the interactions among the people in the neighborhood. Farrell et al (2010) categorize the theories into three classes, namely: the partially tested theories, the tentative or partly developed theories, and the other plausible theories.
The partially tested theories cite such factors as demographic changes, prison populations, and policing strategies, more police gun control and concealed weapons laws, changing drug markets, increased abortion, and strong economic strategies. The partly developed theories point out such things as increased security, changes in lifestyle, increased religiosity, cultural change as well as immigration. The additional plausible theories cite such factors as debut crime inhibition, technological change, crime specific explanations emergence of novel crime forms, obsolescence of crime forms, as well as enhanced crime scene investigation. According to the article, more consideration has to be given to such theories as routine activity theory, situational crime prevention as well as the theory of environmental criminology. This calls for more research on the same. Farrell et al (2010), as well propose the consideration of research into the role of technology and electronics in crime fall.