Hantavirus Cariopulmonary Syndrome
Hantaviruses are a group of RNA viruses, which are members of the Bunyaviridae virus family. several serotypes have been identified worldwide. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary Syndrome is a disease syndrome which is caused by the Sin Nombre Virus (SNV). however, some other strains of the Hantavirus family could also cause disease syndromes which are very similar in presentation to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary Syndrome. (Cunha, 2011). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Hantavirus infection in humans is classified as an emerging infectious disease. this is because a lot of facts remain unknown about the disease and its presentation in humans. however, Hantavirus is described by Pini et al (2012) as being a zoonotic viral infection which is transmitted by rodents as vector agents. An increase in the number of hantavirus cases is the trend in recent times since 1993 when the first outbreak of Sin Norme Virus was discovered. (Pini et al, 2012).
the basic Pathophysiology of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome caused by Hantavirus is an increase in the permeability of blood vessels that is a consequence of damage to the endothelium which leads to edema. this may be attributed to the immune response mounted by the host to antigens expressed by the virus. the host body develops specific antibodies to the virus right about the time when the clinical symptoms begin to manifest. Clinical manifestation of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary syndrome includes the development of pulmonary edema. there is no direct affectation of the heart. the patient also suffers from renal dysfunction consequent upon Prerenal Azotemia due to reduction in the intravascular volume.
Controlling Hantavirus Infection.
In a bid to break the chain of transmission of Hantaviruses from rodents to humans, a number of steps have to be taken. The assets which my community possesses which would be needed to solve the problem includes the presence of the Local health Authority. The local health authority. The local health authority is the first line in public health administration. the local health authority is directly involved in the public health management of infectious diseases. the local health authority is known to provide a proactive role in the prevention of transmission of infectious diseases. in this regard, the expertise of the local health authority will be utilized in the area of sensitizing the general public on the public health significance of this problem; this is a form of health promotion initiative. in addition, the local health authority will be involved in disease surveillance to detect outbreaks of the disease and manage it as such. the local health authority is the ultimate integrating unit that receives input from private and public health providers, institutions, community-based organizations to manage the control of infectious diseases. other assets which the community will require to control this kind of infection is a good hospital facility that can successfully manage individual cases. other assets include the healthcare workers that would be involved in the management, including doctors, nurses, laboratory workers, epidemiologists and pharmacists among others. moreover, the input of the government is also important. this is in the form of a policy framework which would be a guiding principle in the implementation of decisions regarding the control of Hantavirus infection.
Data that will be collected to determine if the identified interventions are effective would include data on the case incidence and incidence rate of Hantavirus infection. in addition, data on the prevalence rate will also be collected. a reduction in the incidence and prevalence rate of Hantavirus infection would mean that the methods of intervention are effective in curbing the infection. moreover, data on the mortality and morbidity associated with Hantavirus infection in affected individuals will also be collected. this is in a bid to recognize the occurrence of the disease when and to monitor treatment. The mortality rate will be extrapolated from the data on the incidence, prevalence rate and mortality due to hantavirus infection.
Data on the outbreak pattern will also be collected. This is in a bid to understand the mode of propagation of the infection in the area so as to be able to prescribe the right solution to the problem. A household survey will also be carried out to know the level of awareness of individuals in the community to the scourge of Hantavirus infection. I would want to know how much people know about the infection, the mode of infection, clinical signs and symptoms and mode of prevention. This will allow me prepare an effective community awareness program targeted at deficient areas in the knowledge of the community on the prevention of Hantavirus infection control.
An implementation of the intervention plan would lead to a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of Hantavirus infection in the general population. the pattern of the reduction will be noticed over time. Also, implementation of the intervention plan would lead to a more effective control of the vector, which is the Rat. individuals in the community would be able to effectively the vector thereby breaking the transmission chain of the infection. also, there would be a more effective method of management of the disease by the health care facilities available in the community because workshops on best practices in the control of the infection would have been held at different times.
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of my plans and interventions, I would evaluate the pattern of data that have been collected over time. Moreover, I would also carry out community surveys to find out if there has been a change in attitude towards the prevention of Hantavirus infection. also, I would organize seminars in which health care professionals would come together, evaluate the methods of management of the disease, and see if there is any need for improvement. this would allow for implementation of best practices in the system.
In conclusion, Hantavirus infection is an emerging infectious disease whose management is ever evolving; this is because the disease is still poorly understood. There is need to conduct more studies to better understand the disease caused by this relatively known virus. The disease also poses grave public health challenge since it is an infectious disease that can be transmitted by contact with the fecal droppings of an infected Rat. The public health management of Hantavirus infection needs to be scaled up to maximally prevent its occurrence in the general population.
B A Kunha (2011). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Medscape Reference: Drugs, Diseases & Procedures. emedicine. Accessed on 5th October, 2012 from
S Chandy et al (2008). Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review. J. Biosci. 33 495–504
N Pini et al (2012). Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Nortwestern Argentina. emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Accessed on 5th October, 2012 from