Validation Literature on
Literature on the Effect Constructs of
Grandiose Narcissism (GN)
Validation Literature on
Literature on the Effect Constructs of
Grandiose Narcissism (GN)
The purpose of the proposed research is to study GN among presidents of public Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). A review of theoretical, research, and analysis of the validation of literature on the effect constructs on GN provides a variety of insights into this psychological condition affecting humans shows taxonomic and phenotypic inconsistencies as are discussed in the following. Analysis of literature on a specific research design in the past five years on this topic provides a foundation for proposing the intended study on the effect constructs on GN among presidents of public HBCU by critically examining the various visions of GN found in the literature according to its relationship to theory as applied to the study of HBCU leadership in determining the impact of GN on the success or failures of HBCUs. The following literature review contributes to the intention of the research framing the groundwork for future research about the role these leaders will play in the long-term sustainability of HBCUs.
In doing so review of the literature on measures of GN include test identifications describing the purpose of the test, settings, and who uses them. Test description includes the format of the test whether use of open-ended questions, multiple choice, cards with pictures as well as the other methodologies with inclusion of the scoring system with computer scoring when available. If applicable the sub-scales are included in the analysis of the testing as well as how the results are generally interpreted; ease of use in terms of administration, scoring and interpretation; cost of various forms of the test and where to obtain it (publisher, vendors, etc.). The psychometric information includes test reliability and validity, including reviews of major studies done with the test and test normative data (how the data was accumulated, for what groups, and assessment of the data's adequacy). In the following the evaluation of each measure for its suitability for the proposed research purposes is included as well as identification of one or more measures that makes most sense according to the proposed research problem and design. In addition, this provides a general understanding of theory and research on the topic.
Defining the GN
Defining the GN characteristics aside from the normal narcissistic behavior of humans looks at the artificial self-invented perceptions of individuals created from their fantasies including absolute or perfect genius, power, and beauty among those listed in the characteristics. The typical non-clinical fantasies humans have of themselves, of wishful thinking taking form in made up stories derived from movie or TV scripts or from stories read as children have plots, heroic activities, grand accomplishments, or adventures where the norm is about seeing themselves in the action no matter the extent of the impossible or preposterous the action might develop. It is a matter of seeing self as having earned honor, love, riches, glory, or fame thus seeing such fantasies of self as personal and individual potentials no matter how tenuous but nonetheless possible if they do not have to attend school, hold down a job, or had the time and money (Horowitz & Strack, 2011). The range and complexity of the disorder affects the validity of constructs according to the typically used Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI) measures. At the same time according to Dion and Dion (2005), “Taken together constructs define a conceptual prototype of a person with a grandiose, inflated self-concept, who is strongly oriented toward personal autonomy and power in relationships and adopts a deliberate strategy of a game playing style with as little commitment as possible to relationship partners (Dion & Dion, 2005, p. 87)” as another aspect of the condition.
Various Versions of GN
Among the various versions of GN that emerges in the literature shows the inconsistent definition across social personality psychology and clinical theory psychiatric diagnosis.
Research literature on this according to by Pincus, Ansell, Pimentel, Cain, Wright, and Levy (2009) describe in their findings with two specific problems connected with the impediment of research and clinical finding integration links with the GN pathology because of the insufficient breadth of the existing GN measuring methodology and the ambiguous aspects aligned to the assessment practices of pathological GN versus normal human narcissism. Further the four studies used in their research documented the initial derivation and validation of the Pathological Narcissism. Inventory (PNI). Used as a self-reporting measure the 52-item PNI assesses 7 dimensions of GD across problems aligned to GD as described above but specific to Exploitativeness, Entitlement Rage, Self-sacrificing Self-enhancement, Grandiose Fantasy, as well as narcissistic vulnerability that includes Hiding the Self, and Devaluing and Contingent Self-esteem. Validation of the PNI structure for the research was via confirmatory factor analysis. Findings of the PNI correlation negatively connected with self-esteem and empathy, and to aggression, shame, interpersonal distress, as well as borderline personality organization correlated positively. Further association of the PNI scales and GN included, domineering, vindictive, intrusive, and overly-nurturing interpersonal problems. Further to vulnerable PNI scales showed association with socially avoidant, cold, and exploitable interpersonal problems of the small clinical sampling.
Of the sampling PNI scales significant associations with para-suicidal behavior, further with suicide attempts, homicidal notions, as well as a number of characteristics of psychotherapy. Theoretical conceptions of narcissism contain subtle differences in their contributions, their approaches and are typically cited either interchangeably or together and interchangeably as exemplified by Mollon (1986) Morf, and Rhodewalt (2001) according to Jones and Palhus (201l).
The PNI criteria for the research Pincus et al research (2009) measured according to norm versus GN, GN versus narcissistic vulnerability, and self-report measures of narcissism. Study 1 on derivation and item selection methodology used generation and content analysis of the 105 item pool with a sampling of Caucasian college students mixed gender. Results included use of the exploratory principal- component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 examined correlation of normal and GN with methodology using self-report measures among an 800 participant sampling of Caucasian mixed gender college students (they received extra credit in their introduction to psychology classes) using PNI measures.
Validity measure used the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (included sub categories). Study 3 – GN and interpersonal problems using a sampling of 399 mostly Caucasian Intro Psych students (again course credit applied). Validity of the PNI were the study outcome. Study 4 – GN and psychotherapy with patients completing the self-report criteria described in Study 2. Results showed one-tailed validity correlations and generally align to those found in Study 2. Psychotherapy variables of the PNI showed no correlation as the researchers predicted (Pincus et al, 2009). The significance of this study in relation to effect constructs of GN connect to the definition provided above in these findings (Pincus et al, 2009).
Studies of the same focus by Pincus and Lukowitsky (2009) and Balaji and Balasundaram (2015) found using self-report methodology for measuring the effect constructs of GN concluded while this is an important for assessing GN the limitations connect to potential for bias, distortion, and otherwise ambiguous information aligned to the assessment of socially desirable characteristics. Further to the limitations as explained by Jones and Paulhus (2011) who summarize, “ (How) across all the relevant research, we conclude that narcissism is associated negatively (albeit weakly) with communion and positively with agency (p. 249)” and offers a rationale for the underlying limitations of a self-assessment and even an empirical measurement of the effect constructs of GN. Further, according to Vernon, Villani, Vickers, and Harris (2008), “Machiavellianism has a substantial shared environment component whereas narcissism and psychopathy were accounted for almost entirely by genetic and (non-shared) environmental factors cited by Jones & Paulhus, 2011, p.251).” Consequently, within this shared environment this suggests that over time individuals acquire Machiavellian traits thus possessing enough “phenotypic plasticity to adjust to their environment (Jones & Paulhus, 2011, p. 251).
The complexity of subsequent variables such as this type of factor on the effect constructs measuring GN continue debate among experts in the field. Evaluation and the rational of the literature presented here aligns to the suitability for the CEO linked HCBU proposed research purposes provides the underpinnings for investigating the research problem – the degree of GN among CEOs at HBCUs. As posited in the introduction the intention of the above review of theoretical, research, and validation literature on the effect constructs on GN existing in CEOs at HBCUs provided a variety of insights into this psychological condition affecting humans having taxonomic and phenotypic inconsistencies as identified in the literature particular to the qualitative methodology using self-reporting, interviews, and empirical observations.
In conclusion, the literature review, examination presented, and discourse presented above of one research outcome investigating four different studies focusing primarily on the self-reporting methodology using specific criteria for measuring the effect of constructs on GN provided an important gauge for the limitations that concurred with other literature of studies included in the above literature review. The focus of a research project on the effect of constructs on GN on CEOs of HBCUs must consider this limitation and the effect on the validity of the ensuing data derived from any study design consideration. In doing so this also assists in answering the research questions:
1. Do HBCU presidents exhibit GN?
2. What is the relationship between the president with GN and the college’s performance?
3. Are presidents who exhibit GN more successful than presidents who do not?
Balaji, V., & Balasundaram, I. (2015). A Study on Sub-Clinical Narcissistic Personality Score and Its Relationship with Academic Performance-An Indian Experience. Asian Social Science, 11(2), 96.
Dion, K. L., & Dion, K. K. (2005). Chapter 4: Culture and Relationships: The Downside of Self-Contained Individualism. In R. M. Sorrentino, D. Cohen, J. M. Olson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Culture and Social Behavior (pp. 77-94). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2011). 15- Differentiating the Dark Triad within the Interpersonal Circumplex. Horowitz, L. M., & Strack, S. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of Interpersonal Psychology: Theory, Research, Assessment and Therapeutic Interventions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Pincus, A.L., Ansell, E. B., Pimental, C.A., Cain, N.M., Wright, A.G.C., & Levy, K. N. (2009). Initial Construction and Validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment © 2009 American Psychological Association 2009, 21(3), pp. 365–379
Pincus, A.L., & Lukowitsky, M.R. (2009). Pathological Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 21(25).