Compare and Contrast Theories Paper
Dreikurs developed a comprehensive classification, according to which any deviant behavior of children can be seen through the lenses of four different categories of goals. The basis of the heart of misconduct is created by four different psychological purposes. They can be classified as the attraction of attention, achievement of power, failure simulation and revenge. These goals are straightforward and apply to the current situation. Initially Dreikurs defined them as deviant or inappropriate purpose. The child acts, based on the belief (usually unconscious) that he has some relevance in the eyes of others when grabs somebody`s attention. Success-oriented child believes in his acceptance and respect only when he achieves something ("Classroon Management as Discipline," n.d., p. 86-87). Usually, parents and teachers praise the child for excellence and this convinces him that "success" always guarantees a high status.
Abraham Maslow is known as the discoverer of "values pyramid," which dot the i's and cross the t's on human values and needs. For example, during the studies, child should met their basic physical needs, before entering the school (Hoard, 2013, p.3). Honesty and accepting the key to self-actualization is individual responsibility. Whenever a person accepts responsibility, he is self-actualizing. Only the individual is able to reveal his purpose, which means that he can and should take responsibility for his own choices. His thoughts also transformed into the theory of parenting. Maslow says that if parents treat the child with love and respect, they can prevent many mistakes and still be successful. Recommended type of education of the child is best described as freedom with slight restrictions. Maslow acknowledges the dangers of permissiveness and forgiveness, and at the same time points out the harm caused by dictating, authoritarian parent who suppresses excessive control of the child, disabling the opportunity to develop child`s personality.
In addition, Glasser is the author of control theory that treats people as creatures dependable on basic needs. All human behavior is an attempt to control the world in order to meet those needs. Children are born without any knowledge how to satisfy their needs. Glasser underlines a distinction between those who do something for their children and those, who leave them alone. Many parents pay too much attention to their children, as a result, they grow up and become completely passive and without any knowledge how to manage their own life ("Reality Therapy (RT)," n.d.). Moreover, parents often shout at children and punish them when they do not carry out their instructions. According to Glasser, children learn best how to control their own life with adults who encourage them to act in their own interests. From the beginning, people do not know their needs, or the way of their satisfaction. However, babies know what they want and when their needs are not met, they feel bad. This knowledge allows them to extract some idea of what their needs are. For example, babies have no idea about food or survival.
Coopersmith conducted one of the most extensive studies of the influence of family on the development of self-esteem of the child. He outlined the behavior within the family, which, in his opinion, may affect self-esteem. Among them - the family size, the nature of relationships with siblings and close relatives, especially the person's mother and father, as well as their relationship. Strong attention was paid to the parent education as a condition of becoming an independent child ("Self-Esteem: Helping Children Develop a Positive Sense of Self," 2010).
S. Coopersmith found that self-esteem is higher in the first and only children and children, who have a strong value for family (eg, the son who was born after few daughters). Family size is not associated with child`s self-esteem. Children with high self-esteem were less often remained at home alone than children with low and medium; they had a close relationship with her sisters and brothers, as well as with many friends outside the family.
The main feature of all these theories is self-dependance, which can be seen through the lenses of the right balance of control and allowance for free independent actions. For instance, Alfred Maslow rejects the tendency of Freudian psychology to portray a young child as selfish, destructive, aggressive and unwilling to cooperate human being. Normal children, according to Maslow, can be hostile, destructive and selfish, but they can also be generous, altruistic. What qualities will outweigh depends on the quality of environment where children will be growing up. If they are unsure if their basic needs are not met, the negative components of behavior will dominate (Nesbitt, 2013). The destructive and aggressive behavior will disappear if their parents treat them with respect and love. At the same time, Coopersmith outlines that the primary condition for the formation of independent behavior depends on permission for a set of individual actions that exist within defined parental limits. According to Glasser, children should live in accordance with their own life goals, but not of their parents. Too often, parents expect from adjustment to their own picture and in doing so, they create a fighting force. However, if the parents permit it, children can use their love to control them. Dreikurs mentioned that the behavior of child has the aim to attract attention, as it relates to the useful side of life. The child acts, based on the belief (usually unconscious) that he or she has some relevance in the eyes of others only when they pay attention. The success-oriented child believes that he accepts and respect only when he achieves something independently. Usually, parents and teachers praise the child for excellence and this convinces him that "success" always guarantees a high status.
Maslow`s theory differs from others with its division of children into those who grew up in a healthy environment and unhealthy. His approach is suitable for "healthy raised" children and may not work for those who already have problems with their character, because Freudian theory comes from the fact that any child resists change and growth, and, therefore, needs continuous "pushing" to a new state of living, which frightened him. Maslow firmly rejects this view. More precisely, it is true for some uncertain children who fear, but not for "healthy" ones. At the same time, Coopersmith was concentrated more on the relationship within the family and the authority of its members. He discovered interdependence between the authority of father and mother and its influence on the childish self-confidence. Glasser differs with his new definition for babies born with a full behavior of angering - a baby's way to transfer the world signals that he needs are not met. To encourage the independence, shortly after birth, most mothers allow their infants longer fully control themselves through angering. Glasser states that people are creative creations and quickly learn other kinds of behavior. The people to whom children are indifferent and respect them are the most efficient teachers. If this kind of behavior does not attract attention and lead to the desired result and does not allow taking the desired place in the group, it may discourage a child. According to Dreikurs, the parents or teachers cannot be winners in this situation. In comparison to other theories, a child can "win" for the sole reason because he is not limited in its methods of struggle and has no moral responsibility and obligation. The child will not fight fair. He can spend much more time on the alignment and implementation of its strategy of struggle, so, in comparison to Maslow`s theory, Dreikurs see the child as the a fighter for the independence and competitor of parents.
Personal Theory of Classroom Management
The theory of Maslow is much more suitable so I will try to apply it to my personal. The psychological theory calls for a new type of education and training. It is expected that more attention should be paid to the individual`s potential development, especially potential of humanity, understanding ourselves and others, the satisfaction of basic human needs and growth toward self-actualization. Too often the educational process inhibits intuition and creativity, instead of developing them - however, some students improve the quality of education due to their strong intention. The process of education should focus on the theory to a lesser extent and more - on the results: critical thinking activities, the ability to reason and argue, knowledge of how to live (financial education, ethics etc). The universities pay more attention to courses, which explains how to teach rather than how to live. Education in the classroom should be more associated with life. The student must learn how to develop, distinguish good and bad on real-life situations, which require professionalism from the teacher (mentor), what should and should not be chosen by a certain individual. The acquisition of wisdom, maturity, flavor and character requires experience of success and failure, frustration, pain, marriage, the birth of children, etc. These are all important parts of the experience through the lifespan. Psychology has constantly faced the problem of resistance to the truth. Often, people are desperately trying to avoid the truth that seems to pose a threat to their "Self," courage and integrity - these are important characteristics of the individual, striving for psychological growth. A man with a wide experience has a great knowledge about himself, so this characteristic should be formed and developed.
Relation to Bible
“The words of the wise heard in quietness are better than the shouting of a ruler among fools.” ("Ecclesiastes 9:17," n.d.) First, this phrase is perfectly combined with the theory of Maslow that stresses itself the importance of teacher-parent who needs to find a balance between stick and carrot and encouragement. However, I absolutely agree with Maslow that the overall respect has a positive effect on the formation of personality. In this case, a teacher or a parent himself must act as a mentor who only guides but does not oblige; advises, but does not act instead individual. In this context, aggression is excluded because the individual should learn himself from his own mistakes. Why should the mentor swear at him if he himself makes sure that he is wrong? There is a danger that the child (student) will be uncontrolled and will do what he wants. In this case, the mentor needs to clarify the benefits and harms of the offense act. Thus, the student would be aware of the wisdom of his "mentor," admitting his authority. The only prerequisite is the teacher with a wide background and experience. However, even with this approach, the teacher will be able to learn together with the students, both recognizing their own mistakes.
Classroon Management as Discipline [PDF]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www2.bc.edu/~peck/Dreikurs.pdf
Ecclesiastes 9:17. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://biblehub.com/ecclesiastes/9-17.htm
Hoard, C. (2013, August 13). Motivation: The Key to Classroom Management Success in ESL Classrooms. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4575727/Motivation_The_Key_to_Classroom_Management_Success_in_ESL_Classrooms
Nesbitt, C. (2013, February 8). How does the Performance of Children in the Classroom Relate to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs | Christopher Nesbitt @cnesbitt1811. Retrieved from https://christophernesbitt.wordpress.com/2013/02/08/how-does-the-performance-of-children-in-the-classroom-relate-to-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs/
Reality Therapy (RT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.incredibleart.org/links/toolbox/discipline3.html
Self-Esteem: Helping Children Develop a Positive Sense of Self. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/family-relationships/children-and-self-esteem/34763.aspx