Isoforms of Dj-1 / Park7 Protein and Gp100
Isoforms of DJ-1 / Park7 protein and gp100
DJ-1 is simply a multifunctional protein that has a very crucial importance in oxidative stress, synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease and cell death. Levels of DJ-1 generally decreases in cerebrospinal fluid, but they do not have a different composition in human plasma especially with patients with Parkinson illness. The total amount of DJ-1 has their attributes in the red blood cells, and they have the potential of being biomarkers of the Parkinson disease. In determining whether DJ-1 can be used as a biomarker of PD severity or PD diagnosis, we check on its abundance in protein concentration as well as the proteins co-migration. In this case, DJ-1 has a low abundance protein concentration and the co-migration and thus it has a phenomenon of two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis. It is therefore very hard to detect the unequivocally 0f DJ-1 by use of MS found in the whole blood having a two-DE separation especially when samples that are unfractionated are used. Isoforms in the whole blood are not always the same in both AD and PD patients when they are compared with the controls. An example is that when you compare concentration of isoform 22 and isoform 6 concentration in patients with AD and PD you find that the concentration of isoform 2 is higher than that of isoform 6. The DJ-1 protein acts as a chaperone molecule that assists fold the newly produced proteins to the proper 3-dimensional shapes. It also helps to shape and refold proteins that are damaged. Just like the other proteins and the chaperone molecules, DJ-1 protein is able to assist to deliver some proteins to proteasomes. Quantities of DJ-1 have their aspects on the red blood cells that make them different. The proteasomes are the structures in the cells that are responsible for breaking down molecules that are not needed.
Park7 protein is generally a gene that codes proteins. Park7 associates with diseases such as the parkinston disease 7. Peptide activities and protein homodimerization activity are the GO annotations that are related to park7. Park7 gene gives instructions that makes a DJ-1 protein that is normally found in many organs and tissues, such as the brain. Among the many functions of DJ-1 is to protect cells such as the brain cells against oxidative stress. This oxidative stress occurs when free radical molecules rise to a level that can easily kill or damage the cells. When the par7 gene mutates, it brings rise into the Parkinson disease a condition that is defined by the progressive problems of balance and movement. The early onset of the disorder is associated with the mutations. Some of these PARK7 gene mutations may lead to changing the amino acids that are the building blocks used in making proteins or may also lead to abnormally small DJ-1 protein. Altering the protein makes it unstable making it not to function well or sometimes make it nit function completely. In some other circumstances, the mutations may disintegrate a very large portion of PARK7.
The enzyme-linked immunorbent assay is mostly used as a diagnostic tool I the field of medicine, as a quality control measure that detect and quantify some specific antibodies or antigens in any given sample. The shortcoming in making the ELISA is that the enzyme-mediated will change color and reacts indefinitely. After a long period, the strength of color inaccurately reflects the composition of the primary antibody that is present thus yielding false results. ELISA can only be used in samples that are soluble in water and thus those samples that are not soluble in water are not very liable. Another inconvenience is that for a particular antigen or antibody to be detected, an identified reciprocal antibody or antigen needs to be generated. In addition, binding a non-specific antigen or antibody to a plate will automatically lead to a false result. ELISA mobilizes antigen, but this method of immobilizing the antigen is not specific. This is because when using the serum as a test antigen, all the protein that is present in the sample will adhere to the wells of the microtiter plate. ELISA can only be used in short-term circumstances and not in long future as the results obtain lose color with time.
Solving the problem entails using a unique capture antibody to a specific test antigen so that it is selected out of the serum. This involves identifying a specific antigen and preparing the well surface by a given quantity of an antibody so as to capture the antigen. Modifying the ELISA in such a way that it can be used in both soluble and non-soluble samples as this does not limit the range of sample used. The inconvenience that comes along with ELISA binding a non-specific antigen or antibody to a plate is solved by ensuring that ELISA links only specific antigen or antibody to a given specific plate. th problem of long-term effect of the ELISA changing color should be solved by ensuring that proper storage is done so that the color do not change with time. An important question that can be asked is if DJ-1 is able to distinguish PD from the other Parkinson conditions that overlap clinically with PD. There are a limited accountability and specificity for compensatory mechanisms. The gp100 is stored at -20 degree up to -800 degrees. This is not the only storage condition but rather other conditions for storage must be validated.
This is the Activating Transcription Factor 3 which has numerous promoters, and it increases the nerve injury and the overexpression of constitutively active Atf3 that then increases the active rate of nerve regeneration. We have four different Atf3 isoforms and were identified in the dorsal root gabglia. However, the four forms of Atf3 differ in TSS. Out of the four isoforms, only one differs from the CDS. The gene codes a member of the AMP a responsive element binding protein family. The gene is encoded by different signals such as the ones that are encountered by the cancer cells. The gene is also involved in the cellular processes and stress response. Many transcript variants of the encoding gene of different isoforms are associated with this gene. Spicing of this gene is physiological important in regulating a target gene.
This is the phosphates and tensin homolog and is mainly a gene that suppresses tumor and the regeneration of axon. We have three Pten isoforms, and they are; Pten, PTenJ1, Pten J2. Pten1 has a little difference with the TSS and CDS. Pten 2 can truncate the CDS. Pten is analyzed as having an action towards leukaemia that is detected by the tissue microenvironment.