The process of determining whether an organization requires a formal project management process is usually accompanied by a set of questions. Some of the questions include:
Are the tasks complicated? Are there constrictions right? Are there vibrant environmental contemplations? Are there numerous activities to be assimilated? Are there practical border lines to be crossed?
Project management methodologies present a number of benefits to an organization; project management enable the organization to achieve more tasks with less people and in short time, it increases the profitability of an organization, project management grants better control of the changes in the scope, it makes the organization more effective as well as more efficient, it enables the organization to operate closer with its clients, it presents a method for problem solving, it reduces the majority of the power struggles while increasing the quality of services and it enable management to make good company decisions (Kerzner 23).
Project management process handles the resource shortages through the use of effective budgeting and effective planning before a project is started. This ensures that appropriate resources are allocated for the right course in the right amount.
Increasing costs can be overcome by early and appropriate budgeting. This ensures that there are no cost overruns and schedule delays. Increasing cost can be managed effectively through appropriate scheduling (Kerzner 13).
Poor quality of work
Project management process outcomes the obstacle of poor quality of work through developing an educational program to improve project management skills.
Technology changes are addressed through the use of more specialized manpower in the project. Also, the changes in technology can be addressed through ensuring the flexibility of both time and money.
Competition is addressed through incorporating customer expectations in the process of project development. Project management process overcomes completion through effectiveness and efficiency in product development.
There a number of advantages associated with presenting the project manager with total integrative responsibility. Some of the specific advantages include; integrative responsibility enables for the total accountability to be assumed by one person, it enables the organization to focus more on the project dedication rather than functional dedications; it presents appropriate utilization of integral control as well as planning, and allows for the coordination across different functional interfaces (Kerzner 18). Integrative responsibility aids in effortless adaption to a constantly changing environment, presents both vertical and horizontal work flow, there is improved orientation to towards client experience, effortless identification of activity accountability, the aptitude to handle diverse disciplinary activity within a unique period of time, the decision making process becomes multi disciplinary and there is innovation in organizational structure.
The recommendation for the issue (recognizing the need) at this stage of project development life cycle would be to be to identify the customer expectations.
Executive management acceptance:
In order to address the issue of executive understanding of project management at this stage in the project development life cycle, it is recommended that the stakeholders and the organization management should effectively understand the process of project management.
Line Management acceptance:
For line management support, it is recommended that the organization commit to line management, to educate the project stakeholders in line management and to be willing to release employees to be trained in project management.
For the issue of development of a project management methodology, it is recommended that the organization to come up with a framework for managing the project effectively. It is imperative for the organization to use life cycle phases, to commit to planning and to select a project tracking system.
For the issue at this stage (development of management cost or schedule control system) it is recommended that the organization integrate both schedule control and cost control and to develop an educational program to improve project management skills.
Project Manager has P&L responsibility: (Project driven)
Primarily production driven but with many projects: (Hybrid)
Emphasis on new product development (Project driven)
Income comes from projects (Project driven)
Long life cycle products (Hybrid)
Large brick walls (Non Project driven)
Multiple career paths (Non project driven)
Marketing oriented (Hybrid)
Short product life cycle (Project driven)
Project management is a recognized profession (Hybrid)
Very few projects (Project oriented)
Need for rapid development process (Hybrid)
Profitability from production (Project oriented)
The roles and responsibility of a project manager during project development cycle include; set objectives, organize resources, motivate personnel, provide staffing, issue directives, define how tasks will be done and establish project controls.
The three elements that are generally considered when making trade off decisions include time, cost and quality of the alternatives.
Primary success factors
Establishment of control process such as schedule, cost and quality
Quality of resource assigned versus the resource that were planned
Secondary success factor
Use of a project management methodology
Use of interim or phase metrics such as trends, progress and variance
Quantitative and Qualitative failure
Ineffective planning: Qualitative (2)
Poor motivation: Qualitative (2)
Poor productivity: Quantitative (1)
Ineffective scheduling: Quantitative (1)
Ineffective estimation: Qualitative (2)
Poor morale: Qualitative (2)
Project objectives changing or not defined clearly: Qualitative (2)
Poor human relation: Qualitative (2)
Lack of control process: Quantitative (1)
Lack of employee involvement and commitment: Quantitative (1)
No functional management commitment: Qualitative (2)
Conflicting priorities: Qualitative (2)
Stage gate process
A collection of activities that can be conducted either in parallel or series based on the amount of risks the project team is capable of enduring is known as a stage. On the other hand, the structured decision points at the end of each and every stage are referred to as gates. As such, stage gate process is the process of using these decision points to assess the performance of a project and to determine whether corrective action is imperative (Kerzner 34).
Some of the common decisions associated with gate keeping process include; proceeding to the next stage with the initial objectives, proceeding to the next gate with revised objectives, terminating the project, delaying making a gate decision until further information is received.
A product life cycle embodies the quantity of revenue or profit that a product produces over time, from its beginning to the point where it is terminated. Product life cycle has the following five stages; introduction, development, maturity, growth and decline. There is no profit at the development stage given that the product is not yet on the market (Kerzner 34). There is small profit at the introduction stage since clients start to try the product. Sales and profit are noted to increase at the growth stage while they peak at the maturity stage. The sales and profit declines as the market shift to another product.
On the other hand, project life cycle assesses the work that is put into a project from its commencement to its termination. The stages of project life cycle include, planning, initiation, execution and closure. The initiation stage entails creation of organization case and goals as well as assigning of resources. At the planning stage, the solutions to attain the project goals are researched. The information is used to generate a plan as well as a timeline for the completion of the project. Execution stage entails implementing the suggestions and plans generated in the earlier stages. Closure involves wrapping up the details and activities of the project (Kerzner 36).
Employing project life cycle in project management is imperative given that it aids the organizations to accomplish the given objectives within the specified budget, schedule and quality.
The use of templates
The use of templates in project management ensures project success in a number of ways. Using templates ensures that best performances are incorporated in project planning. Templates also present the project with a form of framework that guarantees that information is full.
Standardized reporting format
The application of standardized reporting format in project management ensures effective flow of both information and resources. This simplifies the process of monitoring project progress. Also, the application of standardized reporting format ensures effective scheduling and trade-off decisions.
Use of standardized life cycle phases and end of phase views
The use of standardized life cycle phases ensures that time is not wasted in unnecessary phase views. This ensures that the project deadline is met.
Flexibility of application to all projects
Flexibility of application to all projects aids in development of trade offs in case of project failures. This helps in projects without trade offs
Sales unit may reject a project management methodology if it is not cost effective and does not add value to the sale of the organization’s products
Marketing may reject a research methodology if the approach does not synch with the marketing goals. It is imperative for project managers to incorporate the views from the marketing department during the process of project management methodology selection.
Finance and Accounting
Similar to sales, this unit may offer resistance to a certain project management methodology in case it is not financially conscience. The cost and benefits using the methodology must be in line with the views of the finance and accounting unit.
Procurement unit of an organization may resistance a certain type of project management methodology based on the characteristics and the long term benefits of using that methodology.
Human resource may reject a research methodology if the approach goes against its policies on the involvement of human resource as well as staffing.
Manufacturing and Engineering departments may reject project management methodology if it does not synch with the manufacturing and engineering goals. It is imperative for project managers to incorporate the views from the marketing department during the process of project management methodology selection
Kerzner, Harold R. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.