The effect of heredity and genetics on character has been a puzzle among scientist disciplines for an appreciable amount of time. There has ensued a heated ‘Nature versus Nurture’ argument concerning character. Everyone in the society has always shown an interest to understand what impacts personal behavior and individual character. Researchers have developed several theories and explanations to the relationship between character and genetics. However, other factors like studies, environment, and theoretical models have been accorded some percentage of impact to character.
It is a widely agreed concept that the idea of character development and human behavior is abjectly fluid and is affected by various factors, not just genetics and surrounding factors. Actually, the interaction between the two factors i.e. genetics and environment. There is a good number of theories that are not party to the idea of the impact of the two factors on individual behavior. These theories exhibit the value of interaction of these two factors in determining an individual’s character. One’s personal genetic temperament is valuable in such a way that it establishes a valuable framework that can act as a guide for propensities of specific courses of action. It is factual that an individual can be born with the character of a higher than normal intelligence but the surrounding factors play a major role in how the character is exhibited. For example, if a person were to be raised in a surrounding that enhanced the search for academic excellence, this intellect character would have the audacity for enhanced expression rather than if the person were to be brought up in an environment that belittles learning.
The individual perception in many issues has a close relation to criminal conduct and social deviance. Several sociological and development factors impact greatly on environmental, and social factors that are deemed to greatly affect character. Individuals who possess some specific genetic dispositions may be victims of these factors. Their impact is greater compared to the normal individuals because it has been globally attribute that these issues can greatly shape criminal behavior.
In case criminology went scientific, the heterogeneous gathering of various factors known to be related with criminality and crime ought to be organized and integrated by way of explanatory theory that possesses similar features as the scientific theory in other areas of enlightenment. Actually, the factors alleged to lead to crime should be present when crime transpires and should not be there when it is absent. If such a theory existed, there would be a stimulation, simplification, and direction to ordinary research. If this theory was put into practice, there would be a prevention of a myriad issues related to crime
The perspective accorded to crime, which is peculiarly sociological makes an assumption that the individual gains his interest, justification means and ability in crime his coexistence with other individuals. This concept sharply differs with the biological and psycho-analytic and biological approaches that perceive crime as the manifestation of innate instincts which the criminal has no control over. In the recent years, the sociological notion has been largely agreed by many individuals who associate themselves with areas a part from sociology.
The initial divergence of physiological and sociological approaches to crime perhaps borrows from the fact that deliquescents and criminals were perceived to be separable individuals. This applied to psychologists and psychiatrists from whom analyzes and prescription were asked. On the other hand, the experts stood greater chances of receiving an inconsistent number of offenders who showed emotional unsteadiness or any other psychological shortcoming.
According to the sociologist, it was easy to comprehend all intergroup differences in character patterns if only they were perceived as culture consequences where individuals were brought up. Simultaneously, a culture was understandable in historical terms, which encompasses every person. In order to oversimplify this fact, a person might say that there was an explanation brought forward by a sociologist to explain the criminal behavior prevalence in a single cluster of individuals and noncriminal conduct in another in a similar manner he could the fact that individuals brought up in Paris talk French while people from Omaha are English speakers.
There are theories that have been put forward in an endeavor to alter the way criminals think and allow for curbing incoming criminal activity. These are the strain theory, the social learning theory, and the self-control theory.
The strain theory asserts that individuals indulge in crime activity so as to evade the strenuous bad experiences. A good example is someone who is financial constraints, he will end up planning to steal to gather without any physical struggle. Engaging in drugs also makes users have a better feeling hence escaping the day-to-day experiences. Such examples catalyze the engagement in criminal activity. On the other hand, one may engage in crime because of lack of self-suffiency, respect, money ,and influence. Individuals engaging in strenuous activities tend to get upset with their activities hence a reason why they get involved in crime.
Social learning theory depicts the learning acquired from other individuals in the society. Observations can be made based on someone’s behavior or attitudes. Majority of criminals get involved in crime due to the fact that they have witnessed other get involved in the action. They tend to develop a feeling that crime is a cool and achievable activity. They hence aspire to be exposed to crime by being coined as role models. Even a mere association with criminals is enough to start an association with other individuals already in the act. For example, a youngster originating from a poverty-stricken background is easily exposed to drug dealing ventures. According to him, his motivation is embedded in the way he sees people who deal in drugs flash out massive amounts of money, riding expensive cars and clad in expensive apparel. Drug dealing becomes a desirable thing to him. He later commences selling drugs himself hence engaging fully in the activity.
Self-control theory states that people tend to indulge in self-indulgent behavior so long as it rants them full gratification. Such activities tend to fall in the criminal level. For example, someone may opt to steal someone else’s car to joy ride in. such an individual’s activities are due to selfish because they are aimed at providing personal pleasure at the expense of other people. Such actions are due to lack of self-control.
In a well-coordinated society, civilians tend to achieve belongings and other amenities by employing appropriate methods that are communally accepted. In such a scenario, societal goals are harmonized since no one’s life is jeopardized. However, when means and goals are not in balance, deviance is likely to set in.
A research was carried out by comparing dizygotic and monozygotic twin pairs. This research was geared towards to gain comprehension in the essential studies that influence scientific ideas of nurture vs. nature. These two twins were analyzed for the concordance of criminal contact for the two twins. the fact that the two twins were brought up in the same environments is an indicator that the experiment was actually specific. However, in one case of monozygotic twins, the siblings were identical as opposed to the dizygotic twins who are merely similar. There was 50% concordance detected in monozygotic twins while the dizygotic twins had only 21% concordance. According to this illustration, it is clear that there was a strong relationship of criminal disposition and genetics. It also portrays that there is a degree of importance awarded to environmental factors too. According to research, n it has been noted that environmental factors influence greatly on criminal behavior, explaining why there lacked a 1:1 relationship of criminal behavior and genetic disposition.
Another study was carried out whereby the experiment was to compare between biology heredity vs. family psychology in the determination of criminal behavior. Having being done on two identical twins who were raised by different families that were apart, it was witnessed that the adopted children assume the aggressiveness of their adoptive parents unlike their biological parents.
Socialization goes a long way starting from childhood development. This is the greatest environmental factor that affects the life of a child because that is the time she is taught on how to live with people. During this period, the child learns to adhere to the societal rules and guidelines. The child is hypothesized to learn from the environment at a greater extent. For example, a child is not aware that stealing is not good. Since they cannot contuitively learn the pros and cons of anything. Therefore, is advisable to teach the child through consequences accruing from any misconduct. They hence internalize the regulations and ultimately believe them to be the accepted code of actions. In short, socialization is the only way a child is able to understand morality and communally agreed. This time is fundamental because it is at this age that the child gets to make decisions based on their findings and analysis. For example, a child who has been taught on how to behave in a positive manner tends to show characteristics implying that they are inherently correct. Simultaneously, a child who has not been taught on how to properly get along with people . Such individuals might lack clear cut responsibilities that may not be installed hence e management and a disposition to criminal behavior.
Levels of education have also been noted to have a considerable effect on criminal behavior. People who develop learning difficulties have been observed to resort to a violent character. The biggest reason for this is due to education being the core of every pattern. Another reason for such behavior is that higher levels in the society are assumed to grant financial success and high self-esteem. People who fall under this category tend to be happy more happy too. On the other hand, it has been noted that people with higher IQs tend to distant themselves from criminal behavior. Education therefore dictates someone’s code of conduct in the society.
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Beck, L. (2009) Three Main Sociological Theories of Crime. Viewed on 23rd December. Retrieved from scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2773&context=lcp