Child's developmental process and presentation serve as a theoretical guide towards understanding the changes to expect or that would when a child is growing or in a certain age group. There have been several theories as regards to those developmental stages humans go through. Erik Erikson describes the various forms of developmental stages humans tend to go through in life. He was a German psychoanalyst. He performed several studies on the psychosocial development of humans and published several of his findings regarding the conducted studies. In his analysis, he considered external factors, parents and society has an influencing factors. He classified the stages of development into 8 different stages which are: Infant stage, Toddler, Pre-schooler, School-Age child, Adolescent, Young Adult, Middle-aged Adult and Older Adults. For the purpose of this presentation, the first five stages will be considered while their respective expectation will also be highlighted.
A comparative analysis of the two age groups which are Emergent and fluent stages will also be discussed. A detailed profile comparing the two age groups for each developmental characteristic listed below will be provided too.
- Physical Development
- Emotional Development
- Cognitive Development
- Intellectual Development
- Language Development
- Reading/Writing Development
- Social Development
- Interpersonal Development
The understanding of the developmental stages is being seen as a help towards understanding of the physical, emotional and psychological stages of a child's development. This has an important role to play for caring for a child because the parent that understands what to expect at each stage will know what to offer in caring for such child. That gives the opportunity to learn the physical and emotional need of the child. The child will be able to develop trust with the parent as regards to several and important tasks in most situations. It also creates a great bond between the parent and the developing child. It is important to note that when effective bond is not created by providing what the child wants at those early stages of development, the child is likely to have his or her emotional and psychological foundation ruptured especially on the critical aspects.
- Infancy: this is a developmental period between birth and 18months. The most important factor here is the establishment of trust. The family must be able to show care and the child establishes trust and confidence believing he’s secure. There might be an opposite situation whereby the child develops mistrust if the parents fail in their duty.
- Toddler: This is the early childhood stage and its 18month to 3 years. At this stage of development, the child starts to develop some level of self-esteem and autonomy which will be dependent on whatever he or she is learning from the parent. When the parent cared for the child, the child will be confident of himself unlike situations whereby nobody cares.
- Pre-schooler: Age 3 to 5 years. The changes and development that do occur at this stage is that the individual would be copying the adult around to mode his or her actions. Social factors become instrumental in building the action of the child. He or she will learn how to start creating new things around.
- Adolescents: This represents the individual at 12 to 18 years of age. The most important features of the stage are that of creation of identity. This stage is usually affected by the actions received by the individual.
Comparative analysis of the emergent and fluent stages of reading development
Learning is an important process in child's development. It is characterized by different developmental stages which are categorized majorly into emergent and fluent stage. The emergent stages precede the fluent stages and the two stages have different futures that are significant.
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Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton
Learning Theories., (2011). Erikson's Stages of Development. Knowledge Base and Webliography.
Retrieved 2 December, 2011 from http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of-development.html
Susan B. N,& David K. D. (2003). Handbook of early literacy research, Volume 1. Guilford Press.