The following questions will be answered in accordance with the perspective of Hutchison (2013):
1. Define each of the dimensions and give examples of Manisha’s journey for each dimension. 2. How does knowledge of these terms contribute to culturally sensitive social work practice? 3. Cite examples of how you think these theories would help with assessment and intervention in your practice with client. Provide a rational for your answer. 4. Which theoretical perspective would you evaluate as meeting the most criteria for judging social theory? Provide a rationale. 5. In a short answer list and explain the three factors associated with persons of lower incomes. 6. Utilizing one of the case in the, cite examples of what you learned about the dimension of biology and its impact on a person’s life. (Cheryl, Bess, Melissa, Thomas, Max or Juan and Belinda). 7. Explain how cognitive theories can be useful to social workers. Cite some examples of how you can use concepts from the various cognitive theories to help clients enhance problem solving skills. 8. Explain how theories of emotion can be useful to social workers. Cite some examples of how you can use concepts from the various theories of emotion to help clients change their thoughts, emotion, and behaviours. 9. Briefly discuss one of the three broad stages of interest in spirituality within the social work profession. 10. List the four possible ways that many GLBT persons resolve the tension they experience between their faith and their sexuality.11. Identify and define the socio- cultural factors associated with education and schooling system.12. Cite examples of where you think Stan and Tina are in this process. Explain your position.13. Discuss the relationship of social inequality to poverty rates and demographic factors. Cite examples of social inequality as evidenced in the social institutions of education, health care and family. 14. As social workers, what should we be concerned about in reference to mass media and its influence on human behaviour? 15. List and define the four key traits of an organization. 16. Briefly explain the meaning of the Hawthorne effect.
Essentials of Human Behavior
- Define each of the dimensions and give examples of Manisha’s journey for each dimension.
Manisha is a 57 year old woman who was able to emigrate from Bhutan and resettle in the United States. Manisha conformed with the traditional roles that are delegated to women in Bhutan. She completed her second grade education and married at a young age. She married a contractor to whom she bore four sons. Manisha lived fairly well in Bhutan until the government began to demonstrate discriminatory behavior towards her and her family. This behavior that was exercised by the government was based on her ethnic origins. The Druk Buddhist consensus that was administrating Bhutan desired to unite the nation under Buddhism. Manisha was from Nepali. Napoli is mainly Hindu (Hutchison, 2013). The ordeal that Manisha and her family experienced took its toll on her biological cognitive social and affective domains. Manisha and her family could not eat and cook regularly. This affected their biological domain. Manisha and her family were not allowed to settle. This affected their cognitive domain. Manisha and her family were outcasts in Bhutan and Nepali. This affected the affective and social domains. The separation that was experienced on the members of her family took its toll on the affective domains of her family as well (Hutchison, 2013).
Manisha was transferred with her family to a refugee camp. At the refugee camp, there people resided in a densely populated area. Although the Nepali refugees from Bhutan were given food, there was a need for money. Manisha joined a knitting program that was sponsored by Oxfam. This enabled her to raise some of the money that she would need. Manisha counseled some of the women in the refugee camp and was able to work as an assistant secretary at the refugee camp (Hutchison, 2013).
Although Manisha and her family wanted to return to Bhutan, there was no possibility of her returning. The Nepali government did not recognize Manisha’s familial right of citizens due to her cultural heritage. The workers form the UNHCR promised Manisha that she would be able to relocate to the United States and have a better life with her family. Manisha relocated with most of her family to the United States. She continues to practice her Hindu faith and has not found the happiness that she longs for her and her family (Hutchison, 2013, p. 23).
- How does knowledge of these terms contribute to culturally sensitive social work practice?
Heterogeneity is referenced by the distinctions to the variations at the individual level. Diversity is referenced by the matrixes of distinctions among groups. The characteristics of diversity recognize the different social and cultural groups who have mutual cultural and physical qualities in a classification of heritage. The social worker is required to acknowledge the individual distinctions. The social workers are also cognizant of the distinctions in the community. These distinctions entail the distribution of the diverse cultural groups, including those who have a Bhutanese cultural identity (Hutchison, 2013 p. 32, p. 302).
3. Cite examples of how you think these theories would help with assessment and intervention in your practice with client. Provide a rational for your answer.
The psychodynamic perspective is directed toward the examination of internal processes. These processes are emotions, drives and needs. These are the elements that motivate human behavior. The developmental perspective is directed on the manner by which the human behavior evolves over the course of an individual’s lifespan (Hutchison, 2013). The psychodynamic process can be applied in order to empathize and understand the client. Empathy and understanding of the clients’ cognitive, biological social and affective condition is important. The attitudes and experiences can also be directed towards drives and needs. In understanding the interaction between these domains, the therapist can understand the trauma and find the best manners of remedying the client’s trauma (Hutchison, 2013, p. 23).
4. Which theoretical perspective would you evaluate as meeting the most criteria for judging social theory?
Post- positivity is the philosophical perspective that acknowledges the intricacy of reality and the restrictions experienced by human observers. Post positivism supplies empiricists with the most effective perspective. This is attributed to the premise that the empiricists can never produce more than a partial comprehension. Notwithstanding, science is the most effective manner of comprehending human behavior. The social behavioral perspective is the best perspective for judging social theory. The social behavioral perspective infers that human behavior is acquired through interactions with others in the environment (Hutchison, 2013, p. 36).
5. In a short answer list and explain the three factors associated with persons of lower incomes.
Families with lower incomes have less authority over their work circumstances. This is a situation that has been discovered to have a substantial negative impact on the family well-being. Research has demonstrated that the stress associated with lower incomes. The subjective social position or what can be described as a person’s view of their place in the social hierarchy is directly correlated to the family’s well-being. Persons with lower incomes have limited access to health care, education and food (Hutchison, 2013, p. 106, p. 454).
6. . Utilizing one of the case in the, cite examples of what you learned about the dimension of biology and its impact on a person’s life. (Cheryl, Bess, Melissa, Thomas, Max or Juan and Belinda).
The biological perspective is important due to the attribute of being required for family planning at the social centers where the social workers may be found. There has been postulation that sexuality and gender are multifaceted. There are certain theorists who identify methods in which the culture affects the attitudes, beliefs, definitions with regards to cultural perceptions. In addition, there are many modern definitions about gender and sexuality. The experiences that the clients bring to the social worker are not necessarily consistent with the sexual identity. In addition, in accordance with the progressive perspectives gender is perceived as being a comfort function of a gendered group (Hutchison, 2013, p. 59).
Melissa had a perfect existence. She was young with a Jewish background. The world of opportunity was open for her. Melissa had visions of getting married in a suburban country club. All of the plans were set forth. This included the purchases of the bridesmaids’ dresses. The only detail that Melissa had not attended was to test for HIV. Two months prior to her wedding, Melissa went to her physician for HIV testing (Hutchison, 2013).
After the examination, the doctor wanted to run the tests once again due to the fact that Melissa demonstrated a positive diagnosis for HIV. The doctor reviewed the diagnosis. Melissa tested positive for HIV. The doctor was not sure how to break the news to Melissa. Melissa spent the evening debating with the doctor. Melissa confessed to never having consumed drugs intravenously. In addition, she only had two sexual partners in her lifetime. Melissa wondered how she could have acquired HIV. Melissa had a previous fiancée. Melissa suspected that she may have contracted the disease from her acquaintance from New York (Hutchison, 2013, p. 93).
Belinda and Juan were raised in the same community of a southwestern town in the United States and go to the same church. The name of the church is St. Joseph’s Catholic Church. Belinda and Juan attend different schools. Juan has been walking Belinda home since the seventh grade. Belinda and Juan reside in predominantly small well maintained Hispanic communities. The cultures that are practiced in the communities in which Juan and Belinda reside are Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Mexico. The Catholic Church is a strong religious institution in these communities. The norms of the Catholic Church enable the shaping of the social personal, political and economic behavior in the community (Hutchison, 2013, p. 80, p. 99). The examples cited demonstrate the manner by which biology determine a person’s life choices that are available (Hutchison, 2013).
7. Explain how cognitive theories can be useful to social workers. Cite some examples of how you can use concepts from the various cognitive theories to help clients enhance problem solving skills.
Dr. Albert Bandura is the primary scientific advocate of cognitive behavioral theory. Dr. Bandura inferred that behavior is acquired from expectations, beliefs observation and imitation. In this perspective the learner is actively manipulated by the surroundings and its elements. The process of observation is one of the most important parts of learning with regards to human behavior. Dr. Bandura suggested that human behavior also motivated by expectations and beliefs. The characteristic of a perception of personal competence that is known as self-efficacy are effective implements in the process of educating the clients of the social workers with regards to changing behaviors, emotions and thoughts (Hutchison, 2013, p. 63).
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a conventional category of mental health intervention. In the realm of cognitive behavioral therapy, the client works with a therapist in a formatted manner while attending sessions. The intention of cognitive behavioral therapy is to help the client become cognizant of negative thinking in order to be able to perceive problematic situations with greater clarity and provide a reaction that is more effective. The application of cognitive behavioral therapy can be every effective in the treatment of mental dysfunctions (Hutchison, 2013, p. 64).
Learning how to manage stressful life situations is a much more effective approach. Cognitive behavioral therapy can also be applied in order to deter a relapse of symptoms of mental dysfunctions. In addition, CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) can be applied when the pharmaceutical interventions are not the most effective option. Cognitive behavioral therapy can also be applied with clients in order to help them to get relief from bipolar disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive disorders. The cognitive behavioral therapy approach can be applied for clients who manifest eating disorders, substance abuse disorders, personality malfunctions schizophrenia and post- traumatic stress disorder (Hutchison, 2013, p. 64).
8. Explain how theories of emotion can be useful to social workers. Cite some examples of how you can use concepts from the various theories of emotion to help clients change their thoughts, emotion, and behaviours.
Theories of emotion are associated with theories of cognition. That is to say, the clients have the requisite of evaluating their environment. The theory of emotions may detail that some of the meaning, expectations and beliefs that are attached to events may need to be changed. Emotions are programmed into the client’s brain. The expression of emotion is administrated in the hypothalamus. The manifestation of emotion is a limbic activity. Emotion also includes a cognitive labeling of the sentiments that have been programmed. Emotional and their expression are processes that are learned. There are many emotional theorists who make distinctions between primary and secondary emotions. The primary emotions have endowed humanity with particular reactions that have a survival perspective. The emotions cause individuals to become mobilized, direct attention and communicate emotive states to others. . There is no clear agreement on what are the primary emotions. The primal emotions are restricted to joy, anger sadness, fear and expectation (Hutchison, 2013, p. 120).
The secondary manifestations of emotions are more diverse and are learned social behaviors. The secondary emotions evolve as a result of the primary emotions. The secondary emotions are compassion, gratitude, love, pride, depression, joy, relief, shame, guilt, anxiety, jealousy and envy. The emotions are processed by means of the autonomic nervous system. This system is composed of nerve conduits that arrive at the lower part of the brain. These nerves are intertwined with the spinal cord and are connected to all of the primary organs of the body (Hutchison, 2013, p. 120, p. 122, p. 125).
Psychologists have held debates for more than one hundred years with regards to the sources of emotion. The theories vary from the physiological perspective to the social and psychological context. It was proposed that over one hundred years ago that the human body simply responds to stimuli. These reactions involve the classification in order to ascertain the meaning of the emotion. Another theory had been developed several decades after the initial theories that debated that stimulus and emotional arousal are not correlated. The physiological reactions to stimulus are general and prepare the body for a flight or fight reaction. Emotions are manifested by means of the previous attempts that have been made in comprehending the state of arousal (Hutchison, 2013, p. 150). In a practice that is directed toward emotions, the therapist may attempt to access the client’s primary emotional responses in order to identify them within the therapist client relationship (Hutchison, 2013,).
9. Briefly discuss one of the three broad stages of interest in spirituality within the social work profession.
Spirituality has been reviewed by researchers and has been explored in a perspective that is designated as psycho-synthesis. In the psycho-synthesis perspective of spirituality, the comprehension of the human psyche incorporates constructs of a more elevated state of consciousness that is the origin of creativity and spirituality. The participation of the therapists is to facilitate the journey of the client through the spiritual consciousness while addressing the challenges that the spiritual revelation can pose. Spirituality is referenced by all of the states of awareness and all of the human functions which have the mutual denominator of being explored as a higher than average conscious state (Hutchison, 2013). Religion is an important factor in the lives of many adolescents in the U.S. The most important role models for adolescent development toward spiritual awareness is found in their parents (Hutchison, 2013, p. 166).
10. List the four possible ways that many GLBT persons resolve the tension they experience between their faith and their sexuality.
The GLBT person can transmit empathy, self-identity and self-assurance with regards to their self-perspective. The spirituality is a source of strength for GLBT persons. In the case study of Leon, Leon is conflicted with regards to admitting to the members of his church that he is gay. Leon does not want to lose his spirituality and tat the same time would like to continue embracing his gay lifestyle. Leon must embrace who he is and admit his lifestyle preference to the members of his church. The elements that can assist Leon are self-confidence, self-assertion and a strong self-identity. These three elements can help Leon address his sexuality and enable him to feel comfortable with his self-identity (Hutchison, 2013, p. 185).
The four manners that members of the GLBT community may deal with the tensions between their homosexual identity and spirituality is:
- Deny homosexuality and those who practice homosexuality.
- Cause the homosexual people to feel accepted, valued and respected and deny the behaviors of the homosexual.
- Accept the homosexual, lesbian, bisexual or transvestite and accept all of their behaviors unconditionally.
- Reject the position of the religious institution with regards to homosexual, bisexual, lesbian or transvestites and leave the fellowship of the religious institution (Hutchison, 2013, p. 185).
11. Identify and define the socio- cultural factors associated with education and schooling system.
The socio cultural factors that are associated with education and schooling are power and authority. This socio cultural factor is manifest in the Village Park residents’ perspective of cultural frames referring to education and schooling (Hutchison, 2013). Health outcomes, employment outcomes, subjective social status and health literacy are socio cultural factors associated with schooling and education (Hutchison, 2013, p. 212).
12. Cite examples of where you think Stan and Tina are in this process. Explain your position.
Stan and Tina perceive that the assimilation acculturation is to behave in accordance with the norms that the United States society has placed upon them as African Americans. In Stan’s’ case, this infers that he should follow the behaviors of his father. Considering Tina, this implies that she should be critical of everything. The bicultural socialization that is occurring is that they want to acknowledge that they are African American. At the same time they do not wish to be marginalized therefore they have to fit into the American mainstream culture. Stan and Tina are in this position due to their relationship with the community and the mannerisms that they adopt. These mannerisms can include the clothing styles and expressions. Stan and Tina are at the point of being cultural innovators (Hutchison, 2013, p. 199).
13. Discuss the relationship of social inequality to poverty rates and demographic factors. Cite examples of social inequality as evidenced in the social institutions of education, health care and family.
America has always been promoted as being the land of opportunity. The concept of the land of opportunity is what made the twentieth century convert into the American century. The technological modifications, the globalization and the increasing income inequalities in the United States have caused substantial stresses on the decentralized American perspective on education. The United States and its citizens are constantly reminded that the language, science and math skills of many of the youth are deficient with regards to those of students in other nations. In the intentional ratings, the college index of graduation in the United States has dropped from first to twelfth. The unequalizing factor in the United States has been caused by the disparity between the rich and the poor (Hutchison, 2013, p. 104).
The conventional arrangement s of daily life systematically become obstacles to specific groups and deters their capacity of exercising self- determination. Practices that include stereotyping. Some of the paradigms of oppressions are applied unintentionally. One form of oppression is to search for someone to perform high skilled work and to pay unreasonable wages. The mechanisms of economic authority and control that include the restricting of resources employment, education and mobility. Tokenism has become a way of life in the United States (Hutchison, 2013, p. 22.
14. As social workers, what should we be concerned about in reference to mass media and its influence on human behaviour?
The mass media institution in the United States is designed to shape how the members think and react. The mass media in the United States is applied in order to form the thinking of the masses (Hutchison, 2013).
Social workers should be agents for social change and justice. Many of the present day social workers are able to obtain positions due to affirmative action programs and tokenism. The Structuration theory is an effective guideline for social workers to maintain. It can highlight the power endowments that extend the authority of some of the actors while restricting the mobility and resources of others (Hutchison, 2013, p. 237).
15. List and define the four key traits of an organization.
The four important characteristics that a bureaucratic organization should possess are the following:
- The characteristics of calculability with regards to the quality of saving time emphasized instead of the quality of the product.
- Predictability- this implies the ability that a process of product will have an outcome that is predictable. This implies that an order of French fries will have the dame quality in New York or Los Angeles.
- Control- the employees are doing exactly what they are commanded to do with the optimal application of non-human technology (Hutchison, 2013, p. 291).
16. Briefly explain the meaning of the Hawthorne effect.
The Hawthorne effect is a terminology that implies that some of the employees in an organization endeavor more diligently when they are aware that they are participating in a research experiment. This outcome was detailed by Henry A. Landsberger with regards to experiments that were conducted in the 1920s and 1930s at the Hawthorne Electrical Company. The electrical concern requested that the research be performed in order to ascertain the correlation between the work environment and the productivity (Hutchison, 2013, p. 173).
Hutchison, E.D. (2013). Essentials of Human Behavior: Integrating person, environment, and the life course integrating person, environment and the life course. Sage Publications, Inc.