It refers to the thought process of selection of a logical choice from the various available options. In decision-making, an individual must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each option, and also make a consideration of all the available alternatives. Effective decision making will require the person to predict the consequences of the options, and based on this, make a determination of the best choice. In other words, decision-making is the process of choosing between two or more available options. This gives an outline of the process of making good decisions.
1. Types of decision-making
Involves use of instincts to determine an appropriate course of action. This is a combination of previous experience based on personal values. It is important to take intuition into consideration since it provides a reflection of one’s learning about life. This is not, however, based on real events of life, but is instead connected only to perceptions. Most of the perceptions may have started in childhood and may not be last to maturity. This makes it important to conduct an examination of one’s gut feeling, and this is more so when there is a strong feeling against a particular course of action to determine whether it can work or not (Harrington & Weir-Daidone, 2013).
Reasoning involves the use of available facts and figures so as to make decisions. Reasoning ignores some aspects of the decision. The overlooked aspects include issues from past experiences that may affect implementation of decisions (Bennett & Gibson, 2006).
2. Steps of decision-making
i. This involves:
a. creation of a constructive environment
Decisions are complex and therefore, involve weighing out options on whether they will affect other people.
b. Investigation of the situation in detail
It is important to understand the situation at hand fully. This will avoid making decisions that can affect the freedom of others.
c. Generation of good alternatives
Good decisions will be done when there is a variety of an option available.
d. Plan evaluation
This involves identification of why things are the way they are. Good decisions will be made when the facts and research have been put into practice.
e. Communication of decisions
A decision is only good if it is communicated to all individuals involved. It is important to discuss how decisions were reached.
ii. The essence of making right decisions
iii. Elements of making good decisions
a. Problem rationalization
Knowing a problem is the first step towards solving it.
b. boundary conditions
This calls for knowledge of the available range of options.
3. Good decisions have the following characteristics
Integrity. Good decisions are made out of integrity. Decisions made out of integrity are whole. Decisions made out of integrity are sound and give a reflection of what matters.
Coherence. Decisions made out of integrity are also coherent. Coherence results for reasons given in alignment with the decision itself. Values are important in making rational decisions (Hammond & Raiffa, 2015).
Transparency. Good decisions are always transparent. Transparency brings about accountability, honesty, and openness.
i. Good decisions result in smart choices
ii. Smart choices are clear and easy to understand
a. Smart decisions are free of frustrations and make everybody feel comfortable, with the result being better outcomes. Whether made consciously or unconsciously, decisions shape our daily lives.
b. Good decisions represent the fundamental tool used in facing challenges, opportunities and uncertainties of life.
Bennett, M. D., & Gibson, J. M. I. (2006). A field guide to good decisions: Values in action. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.
Hammond, J. S., Keeney, R. L., & Raiffa, H. (2015). Smart choices: A practical guide to making better decisions. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Harrington, C., & Weir-Daidone, E. (2013). Student success in college: Doing what works! : a research-focused approach. Boston : Wadsworth.