Organizational structure refers to the typical hierarchical arrangement of authority lines, rights and duties of the organization, communications operations of the organization. It is used to determine the assigning, controlling and coordinating of powers, roles and responsibilities and the flow of information among the various levels of management within the organization. The structures of organizations are, therefore, used in accomplishing the set goals and objective of organizations. Due to these varied roles, there are various types of organizational structures. The main categories are Divisional, Line and Staff organizational structure, Functional and Matrix structure (Miles & Snow, 2003).
Divisional organizational structure occurs in larger and complex organizations that operate within a broad geographic region. Also, it applies to those organizations that have several separate smaller organizations that operate under a similar umbrella group. The companies cover various types of products or market areas. The advantage of this structure is that meeting need is more rapid and precise. However, it is costly due to its scope and size. This type of organization can also be present in smaller groups that have different offices within different geographical regions (Miles & Snow, 2003).
Another type of organizational structure is functional. This type occurs so that each division of the organization is set up according to the purpose or function. Here, there may be marketing, sales, and finance and production departments. It works well for small businesses. One of the drawbacks is there is restricted coordination and communication among the departments due to the boundaries as various departments work separately. Matrix structure is a hybrid of the functional and divisional structures. Large multinationals use it. This structure may create dual management hence conflicts within the organization. The conflicts may be in terms of power struggles (Miles & Snow, 2003).
Motivation refers to the enthusiasm of the employees that drives them towards accomplishing the work related activities. It is the internal drive that makes the employees makes that decision of working. The motivation can work either internal or external factors. The internal factors are biological, social and emotional and intellectual factors. On the other hand, the external factors can also influence motivation (Lauby, 2005).
There are several other ways that encourage motivation. The ways are treating the employees with respect, empowering employees through several management and leadership actions. There is also positively managing with a vision, goals, and clear expectations, awarding employees with industry-average benefits and compensation and feedback and coaching from managers and leaders. In addition, there should be the providence of regular employee recognition, providence of employee perks and company activities and the occurrence of transparent and consistent communication about factors important to employees. There should be listening foe employees and employers (Lauby, 2005).
A personality type reveals aspects of the character or psychological component of an individual. These are questions that employees have to answer during an interview. The questions do cover the fields of skills and experience, personality and attitude and enthusiasm and motivation. The personality and attitude are the most significant of all. The personality types in this case are ENTJ (extraversion, intuition, thinking, judgment), INTJ (introversion, intuition, thinking, judgment, ESTP (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Perception), ENTP (extroversion, intuition, thinking, perception), among others (Kroeger & Thuesen, 2013).
The personality tests are important in leading to more changes in life, more team-based working, Fewer levels of management, less autocratic management among many others. The most commonly used personality tests are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the SHL OPQ32r, and others. The most frequent reports here are the Leadership Report, The Sales Report, The Candidate Plus Report, The Manager Plus Report, The Team Development Report and others. There is an increase in the use of personality tests as there is no need to print and allocate the printed material. In addition, results can be processed immediately with no human input. There is a lot of suppliers generating online personality tests (Kroeger & Thuesen, 2013).
Learning styles are simply the different approaches or ways through which people learn. There are different methods of learning that different people employ. A lot of people do recognize that each prefers different styles of learning. The methods of learning have common ways through people learn. Every person has a mix of different styles of learning. Some find that they possess a dominant form of with less use of other techniques while others use various forms under different circumstances (LeFever, 2011).
The three main learning styles are Visual or spatial, Physical or kinesthetic, and Aural or auditory-musical. Visual or spatial employs the use of pictures, spatial understanding, and image use. Also, learners can read well body language, and possess an excellent perception of esthetics. An individual learns better in lectures where they watch them. They can memorize and have a recollection of various kinds of information. Physical or kinesthetic prefers the use of body, hands, and a sense of touch. They like demonstrating how things are done rather than explaining them verbally. They are usually good in mathematics and sciences. Aural or auditory-musical style prefers using sound and music. The learners notice different aspects of speaking, they often have talents in music and have a better concentration when soft music is playing in the background. They prefer telling them how to do things, and them summarize the main points out loudly hence aiding in their memorization (LeFever, 2011).
In addition, there is logical or mathematical style that uses logic, systems, and reasoning. Other styles are solitary or intrapersonal in which one works alone and uses self-study. Social or interpersonal employs a strategy where people learn in groups or learning with other persons. An individual's learning style guides them the way they should learn. Research has it that each learning style uses the different parts of the human brain. Involvement of brain in learning leads to more understanding in learning. (LeFever, 2011)., 2011).
Conflict resolutions are the processes, procedures and methods that take place in facilitating reconciliation and peaceful completion of conflicts. There are several strategies that take place in conflict resolution. The strategies include written communication, discussion, mediation, compromise and others (Deutsch, Coleman & Marcus, 2011).
Written communication occurs especially in cases where an employee is hot tempered. It breaks down the temper and creates a resolution of the conflict. Writing letters makes one to select carefully which do not escalate the problem. It also assists in documenting the communication. Discussion assists in a situation where employees are conflicting due to lack of proper communication. There should be an encouragement for the employees to be often talking and discussing ideas with each other. It reduces the tension and uncertainty that may arise hence reducing the conflict (Deutsch, Coleman & Marcus, 2011).
When people solve their problems with the presence of a third party, it is called mediation. It occurs in extreme cases where people cannot solve their problems alone. The mediator listens to both belligerents and comes up with a neutral decision. Voting also helps in the resolution. The other employees are brought in and vote about the conflict. The voting might be in favor of either of the parties or not. It is however not encouraged as there may be campaigning that leads to the decisions (Deutsch, Coleman & Marcus, 2011).
In conclusion, the handbook has given a clear and detailed account of each topic. The subjects are conflict resolution, personality types, learning styles, employee motivation and organizational structure. The items are essential to any company that wants to be successful.
Lauby, S. J. (2005). Motivating Employees. Alexandria: American Society for Training and Development.
LeFever, M. (2011). Learning Styles. Colorado Springs: David C Cook.
Morton, D., Coleman, P. & Marcus, E. C. (2011). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Kroeger, O. & Thuesen, J.M.(2013).Type Talk: The 16 Personality Types That Determine How We Live, Love, and Work. New York: Random House Publishing Group.
Miles, R.E. & Snow, C.C. (2003).Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.