Section 5 Required Written Assignment
Research studies indicate that there have been a number of evolutions in the United States’ Office of Civil Defense since the beginning of the 20th century. These changes have been in an attempt of enhancing the nation’s preparedness towards potential threats, hazards and attacks. Today, all these preparedness programs have been mandated to the Homeland Security Department. By creating new policies, funding a number of programs, and successive administration of these programs, the Homeland has, to some extent, achieved its core goals. The history of the Homeland Security has brought about a number of policy changes. Most of these policy changes have been mainly driven by a number of factors; preferences for the presidential administration, the evolving threat, major disasters among others.
The most recent incident that led to review and policy changes by the Homeland Security is the September 11, 2001, the renowned attack of the Twin Towers. As a result, a lot of emphasis, resources and personnel were put towards betterment of the Homeland Security department. By doing so, the department and the state at large would be prepared enough to tackle easily and get rid of any potential threat of attack. It is for this reason the department of Homeland Security came up with a certificate training program for any willing volunteer. The department has been able successfully to recruit a score of trainees for their programs and institutions such as the Directorate of Preparedness on a yearly basis. Moreover, most of the Homeland Security strategies were aimed at addressing any possibility of domestic terror.
Documentary records indicate that while the Homeland was busy working round the clock to contain the situations and threat of domestic terrorism, their preparedness received a serious test. In august 29, 2005, the residents of Louisiana and Mississippi coasts work up to encounter with the dreaded Hurricane Katrina. It thereafter spread under to other states as the New Orleans and caused a lot of catastrophic devastations. After recognizing that must be proper strategizing and planning, the then president, George Bush demanded the relevant stakeholders such as the DHS and the Transportation Department to review the US’s catastrophic planning. Upon review and reporting, the DHS allocated $ 20 billion to the State and local authorities for improving their preparedness levels. Over many years now, the DHS department has also trained an approximate of 1.2 million personnel for emergency response.
Theories of Federalism and Homeland Security
Under the concept of federalism, there are two major theories; the cooperative and coercive federalism. The cooperative describes the major economic purposes of the government as redistributive and developmental. For efficiency in government’s service delivery, the delegation of responsibilities must be mindful about the comparative advantages of each government’s level. On the other hand, the coercive federalism argues that the political strategies that shape the policy-makers’ dimensions coerce them to make wrong choices. The theory’s legislative level comes about as a result of its assumption that policies are shaped by the political thirsts of the country’s legislators. This theory, therefore, leaves the presidents and governors have very minimal influence on the domestic policy-making procedures.
The evolution of the above theories has been marked by innumerable tensions and struggles between various levels and branches of the US government. After all, tension is normally caused by the rigorous quest for power. In American federalism encounter, a number of struggles are normally between the states and the national government. For instance, the ratification of the Constitution was an outcome of a compromise between the central government and the states. In 1980’s when Ronald Reagan was elected, the activist citizens jammed roads as they were protesting the high taxation that was laid on them. On the other hand, the congress was busy using their national government to spread their social ideologies.
Washington’s farewell address vs. the US engagement with ISIS
In 2007, the then US president, H.E. George Washington had a chance for a last address to the US republic and her citizens. In his farewell address, the then US president, Mr. George Washington warned the United States against withdrawing her soldiers from Iraq. In his statement, Mr. Washington stated that the withdrawal of the army would be conclusively deemed as surrendering the future fate of the entire Iraq to the ruthless al Queda. As a result, mass killing would be the next event to follow. Additionally, withdrawal of the US Army would give an allowance to the terrorists for establishing a territory in Iraq as a replacement for the one they lost in Afghanistan. However, in 2009, when Obama was in power, the US started withdrawing her army from the Afghanistan. The exercise ran all through until 2011.
In 2011, President Obama declared a grand war against the ISIS. This declaration was considered as a breakthrough in the tradition of the American constitution. This approach was something that hadn’t been attempted by even his predecessor, Mr. George Washington. The war against the ISIS received a total approval from the Congress. As much as Obama’s idea had authenticity in it, to some extent, it is a continuation of Washington’s great fight against the terrorists. Had he gotten the chance, Mr. George Washington would have fully supported the war against the ISIS, a terror group that is slowly taking over the world.