The approaches of media and communications have progressed far in life since the grumbles of the early civilizations; yet, every innovation comes with its own set of problems. Ever since the origins of time, truly since very long ago, people have been communicating with one another. Be it the Stone Age man’s grumbling or writing on the cave walls, man had always had something to say, to any person keen on listening to him. There has not been much change in those days. Then why does the concept of media and communications sound so recent and contemporary? Why are these considered as 20th century phenomenon? Media and Communications are a field of science and technology that is constantly progressing. More often than not, it is more that with the advent of a single new and innovative technology, the planning of the next innovation is already under way.
For numerous decades now, media and communication have contributed considerably to the general knowledge of the global situations and practices of the human kind. The media is at the crux of the cultural, economic, political and social happening all over the world. However, the contemporary media and communications take on a whole new existence and have modeled distinctive challenges. No element of the life of humankind stayed unaffected by the constant developments happening in the field of media and communication, be it the family life, business environment, or the spiritual realm, education, among others.
The field of Media and Communication is undeniably very advanced and vibrant, evolving in tandem with technological advancement. The evolution of media in union with the real-world and philosophical modifications of the traditional media has influenced social change and consequently altered the global communication background. Thus, there is surely a perpetual requirement to appreciate and appraise the increasing impact of media communication happening in synch with the technological advancements.
Similarly, as the contemporary audiences are more practical and upbeat in seeking information, they have the authority and influence to communicate their desire and have the competence to generate space for the continual constantly changing social situation and culture. Transformation, to be precise, is preordained and it demands quickness, adaptableness, and competence of the professional in the field of communication world over. With the rapid progress of society into the age of information technology, more and more people are communicating through the internet not just for increased information access, but also to create their individual realities.
According to Barker, the emphasis laid on domination by cultural imperialism fails to acknowledge the ways that global media content is actively interpreted and approved across borders. In this respect, media globalization increases the resources available for identity construction among internationally dispersed audiences. This review will focus on the relationship between global media, consumption, and the constructed nature of identity as it applies to people and places. The concept of hybridity remains problematic as long as it implies or assumes the mixing of completely different homogenous cultural species. In order to analyze the complexity around these issues, it is important to look at the fact of what and how intense is the role played by televisions these days.
Globalization, as defined by Baker “is spatially, culturally and politically an uneven set of process.” Also, the concept of hybridity remains problematic as long as it implies or assumes the mixing of completely different homogenous cultural species. In order to analyze the complexity around these issues, it is important to look at the fact of what and how intense is the role played by televisions these days. As Baker defines, within the globalization of media culture, television is the basic disseminator of popular texts. Barker also raises problems of power/inequality that involve the terms of mixture and the conditions of mixing. During the process of hybridization, there is a reproduction of hegemony which can lead to diffusion of power. An example is the Diasporas identities. Since Diaspora identities are constructed through cultural power, then this power can be said to be a constitutive element in Diaspora identities. As a result of this, there is a big contrast in the cultural identities of people located in different regions of the world. According to Barker, “while we are all part of a global society whose consequences we cannot escape, we remain unequal participants in it (Baker, 2002).”
In the Marxist theory proposed by Karl Marx, mediation is defined as the reconciliation of two contrasting forces within a particular society, like for example cultural and materialistic domains, by a facilitating element. Likewise, in the study of media, the crucial mediating element of a given culture is the communication medium. The widely accepted conception of mediation denotes the reunion of two contrasting forces by another such force which has a similar meaning both in the Marxist theory as well as media studies.
For the Victorian poet Matthew Arnold, culture as an ideal of human life and it is the one thing that helps human beings in their pursuit towards attaining perfection. This is almost the same even with Leavis. Both these theorists perceive culture to a perishable tradition of static nature. While Arnold recommends a strong and imminent need for safeguarding culture from anarchism, Leavis, on the other hand, advocates protection of culture against the attack of mass civilization.
Feminism, theories proposed by Frank Mort., among others have been very important, in bringing in the changes in the way manhood is explained and considered in today’s society. The interrogation of Mort and his contemporaries regarding the conventional conventions about gender relations and the concerns of feminists regarding conventional masculinity have had a seismic effect on the popular culture, and also on media and communication. The representation of men in media has come a long way, thanks to the feminist resistance views of Mort and his contemporaries.
The subculture theory encompasses several theories that are related to the conception of subcultures as divergent groups, the emergence of whom dealt largely with the interaction of the people and their perceptions and how others perceived them. For instance, Cohen claimed that subcultures encompassed individuals resolving societal status issues together by establishing new values that concentrated on elements that were worthy of status of the characteristic they commonly shared.
Postmodernism is one theory which challenges the beliefs held by all modernists. One of the most famous theorist belonging to the postmodernist era is Jean Baudrillard. Baudrillard opines that people today are living in a word filled with what he calls “hyperreality” that is largely constructed from the surface media images, which essentially challenges and underestimate the notions held by the modernists.
Arguably, media is a most significant element of this battle for establishing the central as well as the dominant ideas and methods for looking at the world. It is unclear as to the need for any form of counter-hegemonic views like for instance, socialistic theories, feminist views, or radial democracy, among others try and institute a successful strategy for media.
As Jones and Smith, state authenticity is something that is invented and legitimated by the practices of organization and authorities and different influential figures and narratives. “These practices include rhetorical claims which link broader cultural notion of authenticity to particular forms.”
Minna Saavala’s piece Entangled in the Imagination: New middle-Class Apprehension in an Indian Theme Park analyses a visit by a group of youths to Ramoji film city, which is a theme park located in Hyderabad. This article examines how trans-territorial imagery flows are socially contextualized by the new middle class in India.
Global media flows have led to new forms of cultural hybridity. The resources that global media makes accessible to people of different cultures around the globe involves different consumption processes based on the political, cultural, historical, socio-economic factors and other different experiences of people around the globe. Thus these factors influence how hybridity takes shape base on the global flows of capital, techno-escapes, ethno-scapes, ideo-scapes, media-scapes. This paper analyzes a few peer-reviewed articles to ascertain how global media flows have led to new forms of cultural hybridity.
Baker, C., 2002. Making Sense of Cultural Studie: Central Problems and Critical Debates. London & Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Beach, R., 2009. Teaching Film, Television, and Media. [Online] Available at: http://www.tc.umn.edu/~rbeach/teachingmedia/module4/8.htm [Accessed 24 November 2014].
Berger, A.A., 2014. Media Analysis Techniques. 5th Edition. California: Thousand Oaks.
Gill, R., 2012. Rethinking Masculinity: Men and Their Bodies. [Online] Available at: http://fathom.lse.ac.uk/Seminars/21701720/21701720_session2.html [Accessed 24 November 2014].
Smith, D.J.&.K., 2005. Middle-earth Meets New Zealand: Authenticity and Location in the Making of the Lords of the Rings. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), pp.923-45.
Subculture List, 2012. Subculture Theory. [Online] Available at: http://subcultureslist.com/subculture-theory/ [Accessed 23 November 2014].