As the name suggests, the “Musculoskeletal system” of the human body comprises of the bones and muscles mainly. Tendons and ligaments are also important parts of the system. The major function s of this particular system is to help in locomotion and to protect the delicate visceral organs.Some of the commonest diseases that we encounter as medical professionals, belonging to this particular system are Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, fractures of various bones of the body, tumors of the bones. Even diseases like TB may also develop in the bones but its development is always secondary to that of the Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Some bone diseases also affect children, like osteomyelitis, rickets and osteomalacia (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016).
Bone marrow transplant is an important procedure which is carried out for the treatment of some cancers. Retraction is another basic procedure which is done for the treatment of fractures in certain bones. Different techniques for plastering are also an important aspect of orthopaedics and are extremely important as far as fractures and their treatments are concerned. Many diagnostic techniques are also specific to the musculoskeletal system of the body. These are the X- rays, bone density tests and bone biopsy.
The respiratory system is yet another system which has a wide array of functions. It consists of organs like the nose, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli. The system not only provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the blood stream, but also plays an important role in metabolic activities of the body. Some important respiratory diseases which are commonly seen are asthma, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial cancer, and TB. The diseases of the respiratory tract may affect any age group. However, some diseases are specific to certain age groups. Some of the important procedures that are carried out for the purpose of treatment or diagnosis of respiratory diseases are Spirometry, thoracentesis (for the diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion) and laryngeal endoscopy (for diagnosis of laryngeal cancer) (Cancer Research UK, 2016).
Important diagnostic tests pertinent to this particular system are Chest X- ray, sputum examination and Lung biopsy. Respiratory and the Circulatory systems are interlinked. Any disease affecting one of the two will also reflect its effect on the other system.
Digestive system consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, large intestine, rectum, and anus. There is an organ which does not actually take a part in the process of digestion, but is present as a vestigeal organ, that is the appendix. Although not useful, but if infected, it may lead to fatal conditions. This system performs the function of supplying the essential nutrients from outside to each and every part of our body. Some common diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract are peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal regurgitation, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Colon cancer etc. Some diseases of the digestive tract may be acquired, but there indeed are certain gastrointestinal diseases that are inherited in the form of chromosomal abnormalities.
Procedures relevant to this particular system of the body are gastrectomy (total or partial), ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) (American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2016) and other minimal invasive surgeries depending upon the affected organ and the disease. The diagnostic procedures which are usually carried out in order to diagnose diseases belonging to this system are Ultrasound, Barium meal, and endoscopy.
American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy,. (2016). ASGE: Understanding ERCP(2). Retrieved 23 January 2016, from http://www.asge.org/patients/patients.aspx?id=386
Cancer Research UK,. (2016). Tests for cancer of the larynx | Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 23 January 2016, from http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/larynx-cancer/diagnosis/tests-for-cancer-of-the-larynx
Encyclopedia Britannica,. (2016). Bone Diseases. Retrieved 23 January 2016, from https://www.britannica.com/topic-browse/Health-and-Medicine/Diseases-and-Disorders/Bone-Diseases