The first American police was established in Boston in 1838. Its objective was to provide security on the streets. By 1860, most U.S. cities have also established their own police force - in 1844, the police had been established in New York in 1854, in Philadelphia. Local politicians are often controlled the first police units, responsible for hiring and promotion. Corruption and violence were commonplace. Training and supervision of officers were minimal. A number of factors and specific events led to a reform of the police. One of these events was the court case Miranda v. Arizona. The solution in this case the court ruled that any testimony as incriminating and exculpatory can be used in court only if the prosecution can prove that the suspect prior to interrogation was informed of the right to counsel and the right against self-incrimination . In the case of the suspect of his rights must prove voluntariness of that refusal. ("Facts and Case Summary", n.d., p. xx-xx). Civil unrest against racial problems of the struggle for civil rights and the Vietnam War forced the police to review the definition of the criminal. The growing crime rate was bothering American population. One of the most of the Events that have affected police reform was the creation of the Administration to promote the protection of the rule of law (Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, LEAA) in the early 1970s. The U.S. Customs Service was established in 1789 for the control of excise duties, tariffs and other revenues derived from the export and import of goods and services. The Customs shall establish and collect fees and taxes, regulate traffic, control, and prevent smuggling and fraud, administers the navigation laws, and is engaged in the control of smuggling of drugs, weapons, etc. ("police (law enforcement) : Early police in the United States -- Encyclopedia Britannica", n.d., p. xx-xx)
However, the U.S. government in the development of parliamentary- democratic forms and conditions of political pluralism was not smooth . The ups and downs of organized pro-democracy movement , strengthening or weakening of the forces of reaction due to the changing domestic and foreign policy situation is directly reflected on the means, methods of government, and especially the activities of highly variegated American system of law and closely related bodies of internal and external intelligence .
According to U.S. press reports, the U.S. has about 40 thousand police with their own rights and institutions. The diversity of their structure and competence of individual states and cities is mainly due to the country's federal structure . The most important part of law enforcement , along with the judicial system is Court , consisting of federal, state and local agencies of executive power, vested with powers on behalf of the State to initiate criminal proceedings , to investigate violations of the law , to maintain the charge in court, to bring offenders to justice. Unlike their European prosecutorial authorities is that they do not have the oversight of the legality of the functions have a special political role in American society , do not know the strict hierarchical chain. Unlike most countries , the U.S. has no single police department , so there is no official term " police ." Instead , each state as well as every major city , and sometimes a small town has its own police agency , independent of the others. Modern police force is often comprised of a special purpose unit that addresses the specific nature (eg, a unit of SWAT).
Police SWAT team of San Bernardino
In most American cities units are specially trained and equipped to prevent public problems and maintain order in an emergency. The permanent standby brigade miner are used for mine clearance and explosive ordnance disposal. An engineering brigade of the police department is widely known for its operational work in the prevention and investigation of terrorist attacks using explosive.
Ranks assigned by seniority:
-The title „Detective“ is a junior rank, which is equal with the status rank of officer. Detectives are in 3 classes , but at the same time they are equal in status (classes are showing how long the detective work of the police and what his track record .)
- Obtained the rank of sergeant, police officers that are working in the rank of „officer“ are more than 5 years in the police. Next there is the rank of lieutenant , captain.
System ranks in the different states are different.
A distinctive feature of the system of investigation in the United States is the decentralization of state functions of preliminary investigation, entrusting its various agencies of the executive power, unconnected by ties of subordination. This peculiar organization of a criminal investigation stems from the features of American nationhood and, in particular, of the principle of federalism. At the federal level, there are about forty-enforcement investigations, large and small, each of which is incorporated into the structure of a ministry or agency and has specialized jurisdiction. Federal law and departmental regulations define responsibilities and the nature of the activities of these bodies. In total, they employ more than 70,000 employees responsible for investigating violations of federal law in the area of competence of the ministry or department. Despite the fact that these bodies investigation different tasks and jurisdiction and operate largely independently of one another, between them established active communication. Realizing the costs of departmental fragmentation in the fight against crime, the various organs of the investigation by arrangement may create temporary or permanent investigative summary form. (Johns Hopkins University, & American Studies Association, 2010, p. xx-xx).
Earlier, the military police used force abroad. Now, in a new place of accommodation, these forces will ensure the safety of witnesses and assist local police departments to conduct proceedings against previously identified criminal networks. They can even conduct raids in the cities and to participate in a show of force that is used to terrorize the inhabitants.
On July 1, 1946, President Harry Truman established CAP as a federally chartered civil society benevolent, and Congress passed Public Law 557, May 26, 1948, making CAP the auxiliary of the new strength of the U.S. Air Force. CAP was charged with three primary missions: education, cadet programs and aerospace emergency services. In 2008, the PAC members were credited with saving 91 lives. Today the CAP consists of 52 wings (all 50 states, DC and Puerto Rico). The country is divided into eight geographical regions. -PAC includes about 1,600 units on the country currently has more than 53,000 members , operates one of the largest fleets of single-engine piston aircraft in the world, with 550 currently flies in the fleet , the through volunteer members , nearly 110,000 hours each year and has a fleet of 1,000 vehicles of emergency services training and support missions. When national aircraft fail to reach, their destination is the CAP to the rescue. In 2008, the PAC members were credited with saving the life 91 The Air Force Rescue Coordination Center allocates more than 90% of his inner search and rescue missions in the CAP. This includes missing or overdue aircraft, transmitter location and missing people’s emergency signals.
Border Patrol - the state organization, military unit, intended for the protection of the external borders of the state, land or water and to maintain an appropriate regime in the border zone.
The main responsibilities of the border troops are:
Providing rules for keeping the state border, curbing illegal change of the state border on the ground, reflection of an armed invasion, monitoring compliance by citizens and organizations of the state border, the border zone, the border crossing, implementation of the border crossing of individuals and goods under the law; where necessary, the provision of support to the customs, army air defense, state security organs. Also: the identification and apprehension of violators of the border regime, suppression attempts of illegal crossing of the state border and ensuring compliance with the international obligations of States on the regime and border protection.
The Government of the United States has its full protect our country against terrorism and future terrorist attacks hands. The four branches of our armed forces do a great job protecting our future in this regard. There is, however, another protection service that goes unnoticed. It is the security of the United States Border Patrol. Founded in 1924th, the border of the United States original A-team of security patrol has been assembled for the first line of defense against unauthorized entry to the United States. This role has since been expanded to include terrorists and weapons of mass destruction and the illegal entry and drug destruction. There are 8,000 miles of the international border in the United States, including Canada and the coastal waters of Florida. This term is patrolling with the entire southwest region with 97 % of the available resources at any given time.
Although the Mexican border affects only four states and is less than half the length of the whole border, it has the most occurrences of attempted entry into the United States. A study conducted in 1993rd, states that about 6,000 people tried to illegally cross in the United States along the same 7-mile stretch of the San Diego border every night. This is an almost impossible task of "prevention through deterrence``, method which was adopted in 1996. There were three phases defined in this initiative.
Phase 1 was launched in two places, El Paso, Texas and San Diego, California. The plan called for the addition of new agents and the installation of lighting, cameras and sensors along the borders. Phase II expanded to border areas in Laredo / McAllen, Texas and Tucson, Arizona. Phase III covered coastal waters around Florida and Puerto Rico.
Since September 2011, security Border Patrol has refocused on terrorists trying to cross our borders in remote areas. In March 2005, Security Border Patrol has released a new initiative against terrorists with five key areas of improvement:
1 . Increase the likelihood that the infiltrators will be discovered before entering the country between ports of entry.
2. Install the current technology to help agents.
3. Implement policies of deterrence fully.
4. Better detection practices of people, weapons and drugs.
5. Reduce crime in the surrounding communities.
Border patrol agents of safety continue to fight the battle using the „prevention through deterrence ", while enhancing the philosophy of things such as response time, strategic intelligence and technology. Statistics show that there is a decrease in infiltration attempts cantons and illegal entry has been diverted to more remote areas. This makes entering the country much harder and gives the security team of the Border Patrol more time to find and apprehend them. It should be noted however, since beefing security at the border, there have been more attacks on Border Patrol agents. The figures reflect an increase of nearly 700 attacks in 2005 to more than 1,000 attacks in 2008. Despite these attacks, the attrition rate has stabilized at 10% from one- time high of 18%. In addition, Security Border Patrol continues to provide their services, what appears to be a battle in futility, the safety of our citizens. Once training is completed, there is a wide variety of employment Border Patrol available to those who seek them. The Border Patrol has a variety of tactical teams, which are trained in special tactics to respond to unusual occurrences in the nature of risk.
BORTAC is the tactical unit of the National Border Patrol for the purpose of broadly similar to a SWAT team risk.
Border Patrol sectors (sectors are operational parts of the border patrol, typically consisted of 5-8 stations) have response teams sector (TRS) or the San Diego area - REACT. SRT is deployed in the area of high-risk incidents or specific missions.
The federal Office of Personnel Management found that the Border Patrol suffers a wear rate of approximately 42-46% for Border Patrol agents during their first year of service. (see OPM and federal wage and benefits law enforcement, Appendix B1 - The Stop Data Rate, 2003). This wear was largely due to agents transferring to the Federal On Air Marshal then 9/11. Since that time, the wear problem has decreased significantly and Congress has increased the salary of Border Patrol agent companion GS-9 to GS-11 Program Executive However, the traditional mission of Border Patrol remains as deterrence, detection and apprehension of illegal immigrants and individuals involved in illegal drug trade who generally enter the United States other than through said input ports. Before this Army of the United States and various paramilitary forces patrolled the border, A Border Patrol Jeep stands watch over the US-Mexico border at San Sedro, California.
A Jeep stands watch Border Patrol over US-Mexico border in San Sedro, California.
Currently, the U.S. Border Patrol employs over 11,000 staff and is responsible for patrolling 19,000 miles of land borders and Sea Border Patrol Personnel deployed mainly US-Mexico border, where they are assigned drug trafficking control and illegal immigration Officer in 2002. Reform of intelligence and prevention of terrorism Act (2004), signed by President Bush, authorized hiring 10,000 additional agents, "subject to appropriation". This authorization, if fully implemented, the hand almost two out of Border Patrol agents from 11,000 to 21,000 by 2010. In July 2005, Congress signed Act of Extra Expense of Relief for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and other operations. The act is also suitable placement to increase the workforce by 500 Border Patrol agents. In October 2005, President Bush also signed the DHS FY06 appropriation, investment 1,000 additional agents’ invoice.
It is very hard to say which of these, Law Enforcement with Civil Patrol, or the Border Patrol are better, more useful and which of these two has more power. Border Police is defending United States of America from intruders, from outside. On the other side, Law Enforcement Police is more like a system, it is system that is defending United States of America from ourselves, from inside. This is why it is so difficult to compare them, because both of them are very useful for the USA and its citizens. There are rules and regulation that needs to be respected from everyone, even for guarders of State. There is a lot of abuse of position by everyone, but many more recorded are cases linked to Law Enforcements. The public is aware of many cases where the police have abused or at least exaggerated their rights towards ordinary citizens. Police is having more connecting dots on daily basis with every type of people; however, as states increase their rights, they use it more. As Court punishes an officer, criminals take advantage of it. In addition, Law Enforcement much more face the criminals then the border police does, and it is normal that the more appeals are toward police officers than some other agency officer. There are no rules, that is why I believe that all forms of defense against crime and for the protection of the state and the citizens are equal in their profession.
Border Patrol History. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.borderpatrolmuseum.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=60&Itemid=68
Janda, K., Berry, J. M., & Goldman, J. (2009). The challenge of democracy: American government in a global world. Boston: Wadsworth.
Facts and Case Summary. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/get-involved/constitution-activities/fifth-amendment/miranda-criminal-defense/facts-case-summary.aspx
Johns Hopkins University, & American Studies Association (2010). Encyclopedia of American studies. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
police (law enforcement) : Early police in the United States -- Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States
Trevino, J. A. (n.d.). BORDER VIOLENCE AGAINST ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS AND THE NEED TO CHANGE THE BORDER PATROL’S CURRENT COMPLAINT REVIEW PROCESS. Retrieved from http://www.hjil.org/ArticleFiles/21_1_10.pdf
United States of America: Human rights concerns in border region with Mexico (including erratam) - Amnesty International. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20071021020708/http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510031998
UNITED STATES POLICE RANKS & INSIGNIA. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://swordandpen.tripod.com/united-states-police-ranks.htm